As shown above English military theory followed the new Dutch style; this led the English to mirror the Dutch company and regimental organisation for their infantry units, but even so this offered a fair amount of latitude. The United Provinces attem-

ptcd initially to standardise their companies, and in 1599 set a strength of 135 officers and men, these being a captain, a lieutenant, an ensign, two sergeants, three corporals, two drummers, a clerk, a chirurgeon, a provost, three pages, 45 pikemen, 30 musketeers and 44 calivermcn. In 1609 the caliver was withdrawn from companies in Dutch service, and thereafter they consisted of approximately equal proportions of musketeers and pikemen. The reduction in the actual number of 'shot' was countered by the increased killing-power of the musket over the caliver, so contemporary opinion considered the actual effect on an opposing formation to be about the same.

The Dutch did not successfully achieve standards for company or regimental strengths, as the drill manual for English troops in Dutch service shows:

'Companies arc compacted into Regiments com-

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