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«.•. i<",vv! .vy exercise) the easiest Armes become not only occasions the Spaniards make them twelve deep'. In troublesome burthens unto the unskilful bearers, 1642 the French and Swedish used files of six men, but too often prove dangerous and hurtfull, both to the English used eight and the Dutch still kept to themselves and fellowcs, that rank and file with ten .The files were then drawn into groups either of them\ It was the responsibility of the corporals of musketeers or of pikemen for training by the the company, under the overall supervision of the sergeants in the five basic aspects of the drill:

sergeants, to train their men how to use pike or Distances, Facings, Doublings, Countermarches musket according to a set series of 'postures' or and Wheelings. These groups would form the next movements, l he large number of training postures sub-unit of the company, which was sometimes were only used as an aid to training and were called a 'squadron' in the Dutch and English reduced in action, those for musketeers being service, or a 'corporallship1 in the Swedish.

reduced to three: 'Make Ready; Present; Give Fire'.

The next stage was to draw all the squadrons of

Once they were proficient enough to be the company together for tactical training under reasonably safe in a group, soldiers were formed into the supervision of the captain and his lieutenant, the files they would fight in. The file was the basic The drill manuals of the day showed a formidable sub-unit of the company and was 'a sequence of

1 • ii« 1 ,1 1 1 . i 11 Infantry drill from John Bingham's Tactiks of Aelian (1616).

men, standing one oenina anotner, oacK to Deny, in Xhis series Gf three illustrations shows the sequence used to a straight line from Front to Reere, consisting brins files cJoser together. The left-hand file remains stationary while the others turn to face it, close the distance sometimes of six, eight or ten men, on some and then face front.

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