Under

His Excellency Sir Thomas F a i r f a x

As it was

Lately prcfcnted at Saffron- Walden in Effcx^mto

Major-Generall Skippt», j j Commiifary-General lrmny Lievtenant-General Cromwell^ 7 And Colonell Fleetwood,

Members of the Houfc of Commons, and Cornmiflioncrs there for the Parliament, by •

ColonellWhile}* ') ( Colonell Colonel! Rich, ( ) Colonell Hewfin,

Colonell Hammond, C ) And Colonell Lambert, ) ^ Ma/or Di(bor<nv,

With the names of two hundred thirty and more

Commiifion-Officcrs annexed.

Which Declaration is to manifeil and fct forth to them 3 thev being Members of Parliament, and of the Army, the Armies realllove and dnigenr care to difcharge that duty for which they were raffed as will manifelHy appcare in time to all chat with well *

to Mercy, Pcace, and Juitice.

The rim* u coming when Cjod vriil execute jufiiccA»cl judgment ok the earth.

Printed by the appointment of the Officers, whole names are hereunto fubltribed. i 6 4 6, h \ ■

Printed by the appointment of the Officers, whole names are hereunto fubltribed. i 6 4 6, h \ ■

'The Declaration of the Army'. This famous pamphlet contains the declaration addressed to Skippon, Cromwell, Ireton and Fleetwood by 'The Officers of the Army now convened at | Saffron | Waldon'. The soldiers sought satisfaction of their arrears of pay on disbandment, and indemnity for the civil crimes they had committed during the war.

'The Declaration of the Army'. This famous pamphlet contains the declaration addressed to Skippon, Cromwell, Ireton and Fleetwood by 'The Officers of the Army now convened at | Saffron | Waldon'. The soldiers sought satisfaction of their arrears of pay on disbandment, and indemnity for the civil crimes they had committed during the war.

pistol at it to prove its strength, but it was in fact usually made with a chisel as a 'sales pitch'.

of equipment. Each of these men carries a musket heavy enough to require a rest. Although still part of the statutory requirement for a musketeer, only F3 wears a helmet—most musketeers had abandoned its use in the field. Note particularly the unusual covered bandoleer (based on an example in the Tower Armouries) worn by F5; this was an experiment in providing some protection from the weather for the powder containers, but as there is no evidence that it was ever a military issue it was probably custom built for a Militia soldier.

Fj, 4, 5, 6 Trained Band Musketeers These soldiers were obliged by statute provide themselves with military equipment, either as musketeers or pikemen, for service in defence of the realm. They wore their own civilian clothes, not uniforms, but contemporary references show that it was the common practice of Trained Band musketeers from London and its suburbs to wear buff-coats as additional protection. To judge from contemporary illustrations these were sleeveless, thinner and cheaper than the heavy sleeved coats worn by cavalry tropers.

As they were responsible for buying their own Gi: Sergeant equipment, sometimes as cheaply as possible, Large numbers of Scots has served as mercenaries Trained Band soldiers always carried a wide variety during the T hirty Years' War in Europe, parti-

G: Encampment: Army of the Solemn League and

Covenant, 1644 On 27 September 1643 an alliance termed the Solemn League and Covenant was signed in Westminster by members of both Houses of Parliament and a group of Commissioners from Scotland. This document contained both civil and religious clauses and the price of Scottish military aid was the supremacy of the Presbyterian discipline in England, Scotland and Ireland. The rather loose phrasing of this document left plenty of room for debate in the future and the Scots later accused the English of deceiving them. In reality, however, this was an alliance of necessity, not conviction, as the king's cause was then in the ascendant and neither Parliament nor the Scots could afford to see King Charles triumphant. The Scots commander, the Earl of Leven, crossed the Tweed into England on 19 January 1644 with an army of 19 regiments of foot, nine of horse and one of dragoons.

As might be expected, elaborate arrangements were made for the religious well-being of this army, with morning and evening prayers and sermons on Sundays, in emulation of the godly army of the Swedish champion Gustavus Adolphus. In the event, however, few ministers could be persuaded to follow the army to England, and it fell away from the high standards of the Scots army during the Bishops' Wars. This group of soldiers are unlucky to have been surprised playing dice on the Sabbath by a minister zealous enough to stay with the army.

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