interspersed with small forts, the 'Lines of Communication'. Once these were completed, the six Trained Band regiments of London, three from the suburbs enclosed by the defences, and nine 'Auxiliary' regiments raised in addition (six from London and one from each of the suburbs) were brought under one authority, the Committee for London Militia.

Although the officers of these new regiments were picked with an eye to their political reliability as well as their military capacity, the real basis of these soldiers' loyalties was to their families and their homes, not the Parliament cause. They supported the Earl of Essex to oppose the king's march on London alter Edgehill in literal self-defence. Their commander Philip Skippon's famous exhortation— 'Come my Boys, my brave Boys, let us pray heartily and fight heartily, 1 will run the same fortunes and hazards with you, remember the Cause is for God; and for the defence of your selves, your wives, and children: Come my honest brave boys pray heartily and God will bless us'—probably meant more to them than any political slogan.

Once committed the citizens were persuaded the following year to contribute 5,000 men to march with Essex's army to the relief of Gloucester, on the principle that it was better to defend London by

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