Confederate Personal Artifacts

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Camp amusements for Federal and Confederate soldiers alike were very limited and included games of chance, music, writing letters and reading, and like soldiers everywhere they indulged in any activity they could dream up to break the tedium of camp life. Some of the items seen here were part of soldiering, such as the gunpowder can (10) and the percussion cap box (17), but others were of a strictly personal nature and were designed to make camp life more bearable Carried in his knapsack or blanket roll, these few items were intended to provide the Confederate soldier inspiration, entertainment, romance, almost everything for his soul, and, above all, a distraction from the ever-present threat of death or disease.

1 Pocket Bible and hymnal

2 Pocket Bible

3 Eye glasses

4 Pocket Bible

5 Pocket hymnal

6 Personal effects bag

7 Photograph album

8 Water bottle

9 Bullet molds

10 Gunpowder can

11 Percussion cap tin

12 Pocket watch

13 Case for item 3

14 Wallet

15 Carved spoon

16 Carved pin

17 Percussion cap tin

18 Chess board and set

19 Paint box

20 Pocket knife

21 Hammer

22 Housewife (soldiers were required to repair their own uniforms, and these small sewing kits contained needle, thread, buttons and small pieces of cloth)

23 Miniature shoe ornament

24 Flute

25 Change purse

26 Deck of playing cards

27 Guitar

28 Powder horn

13 Case for item 3

14 Wallet

15 Carved spoon

16 Carved pin

17 Percussion cap tin

18 Chess board and set

19 Paint box

20 Pocket knife

21 Hammer

22 Housewife (soldiers were required to repair their own uniforms, and these small sewing kits contained needle, thread, buttons and small pieces of cloth)

23 Miniature shoe ornament

24 Flute

25 Change purse

26 Deck of playing cards

27 Guitar

28 Powder horn

Amlacts courtesy ot The Museum of The Confederacy. Richmond. Va

As with virtually every pre-20th century campaign, many more soldiers died in the Civil War from disease than from enemy action. The Confederate Medical Department, in particular, fought a hopeless battle against disease and infection, in which illnesses that would be commonplace in childhood rapidly turned into fatal epidemics, incapacitating whole regiments. In the field of surgery, amputation was the accepted procedure for arm and leg wounds, while body and head wounds were considered inoperable and, given the high incidence of infection, were usually fatal.

For battle casualties, small arms bullets caused some ninety percent of the wounds and artillery most of the remainder Much of what the Rebel surgeon and his nurses had to use was made by themselves, most having to concoct their own pills and tablets, cut their own splints, and sometimes even make their own crutches. Even the professionally manufactured equipment in their hands - as with their Yankee counterparts - was pitifully inadequate and ineffective, if not downright dangerous to the patients.

False Limb

1 Prosthesis (or false limb), for left arm

2 and 3 Hospital linen

4 Pill mold

5 Measuring scales

6 Feeding cup for an invalid

7 and 8 Medicinal measuring beakers

9 Chemist's mold

10 Prescription scales with tin case

11 Pill tile, for handmaking pills, inscribed. "Dr R B. Richardson"

12 Medicinal spoon

13 Scale weights

14 Surgical thread

15 Pocket surgical kit

16 Wooden splint

17 Spring-activated fleam (or bleeder)

18 Folding scalpel

19 Scissors

20 Probes

21 Surgical chain saws

22 and 23 Bone saws for undertaking operations such as ma|or limb amputations

Medical Scale With Scalple

inadequacy of their resources. Many treatments - and medical men's attitudes - had scarcely developed since the Napoleonic Wars.

doubt that most doctors on both sides, did their level best, but they were frequently overwhelmed by the scale of the problems and the

Confederate Ammunition

inadequacy of their resources. Many treatments - and medical men's attitudes - had scarcely developed since the Napoleonic Wars.

The pitifully small and crude contents of a doctor's medical box: some bandages, scissors, a knife and a few pins. There can be no doubt that most doctors on both sides, did their level best, but they were frequently overwhelmed by the scale of the problems and the

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