The plethora of specialized surgical saws and knives gave the impression that the surgeon was a member of a highly skilled and learned profession. In fact, the opposite was true; training was poor and attitudes in most cases were backward, to say the least. Some anesthetics - such as chlorofrom, ether and laudanum (tincture of opium) - were available, but they were frequently in short supply, particularly on the Confederate side. However, in the Confederate Army between 250,000 and 300,000 men died due to the war, but only a quarter of these deaths were incurred in battle or during the subsequent surgical treatment, and all the rest were due to disease.
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