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Antietam photographs shock the North

The Battle of Antietam (known in the South as the Battle of Sharpsburg) forced Lee to discard his plans to invade the North. Instead, he retreated back into Virginia to regroup. In the meantime, Gardner and Gibson wandered over the Antietam battlefield. Their photographs of the dead soldiers who lay scattered across the countryside provided vivid evidence of the toll that the war was taking on both sides. When Brady saw the photographs that Gardner and Gibson had taken, he immediately made plans to exhibit them at his studio in New York. The photographs created excitement throughout the city. Citizens rushed to the gallery to see the horrible but powerful pictures for themselves. Mr. Mathew Brady has done something to bring us the terrible reality and earnestness of the war, commented the New York Times. If he

Where to Learn More

Civil War photographer His studio produced many of the war's most famous photographs Civil War photographer His studio produced many of the war's most famous photographs Mathew Brady is the most famous of the many American photographers who documented the Civil War in pictures. He did not personally take many of the photographs that made him famous. Instead, failing eyesight forced him to hire teams of photographers to take care of the actual camera work. But it was Brady who led the effort to use photography as a way of recording the events of the Civil War for future generations. Mathew Brady would serve history and country, wrote Carl Sandburg in The Photographs of Abraham Lincoln. He would prove what photography could do by telling what neither the tongues nor the letters of soldiers could tell of troops in camp, on the march, or mute and bullet-riddled on the ground.

Master of photography

By the late 1840s, Brady's reputation for excellence had made him the preferred portrait photographer of the rich and famous. His subjects ranged from politicians like President Martin Van Buren (1782-1862) and Senator John Calhoun (1782-1850) to such celebrities as writer Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) and circus showman Phineas T. Barnum (1810-1891). In 1851, Brady published a book of photographs called Gallery of Illustrious Americans that further cemented his reputation as one of the nation's master photographers. He also married Julia Handy, the daughter of a prominent Maryland lawyer, around this time. took photographs himself. Instead, he relied on talented assistants to take portraits and other pictures. In 1856, Brady hired Alexander Gardner (1821-1882) to work for him. Gardner proved to be a valuable employee. A talented and well-educated photographic artist, he assisted Brady as he made the transition from daguerreotype to the wet-plate process, a new photographic technology...

Brady struggles with mounting debts

Shortly after taking the photographs at Antietam, Gardner left Brady and started his own studio. Gardner had argued with Brady over business issues for some time. In addition, he was tired of giving credit to Brady for photographs that he himself had taken. Gardner's departure proved to be a major blow to Brady. His studios suffered financially in Gardner's absence, and his former assistant quickly emerged as a major competitor. In fact, Gardner was commonly viewed as Washington's leading photographer by the end of the Civil War. By 1864, Brady's studios were in serious financial trouble. His photographers continued to follow Union armies as they marched across the South, but the cost of outfitting his teams of photographers was huge. In addition, Brady overestimated the money he could make on his Civil War photographs. Demand for his photographs increased somewhat after the Confederacy surrendered in the spring of 1865, but the increased income was not enough to cover his many debts....

Harnessing The Iron Horse For

Robert Lee Steamer

Brigadier General Herman Haupt, the technical brains behind the USMRR, photographed while making a typically hands-on personal inspection, here by means of a raft with inflated rubber floats. Among his many other innovations Haupt put together a series of photographs and written instructions demonstrating how to twist rails, blow bridges, and repair them he circulated copies among Union commanders, who sometimes took the credit for the results achieved by using Haupt's ideas. (LC) This experimental armored Union engine utilizes 3 sin iron plate to protect the cab and some of the working parts. The armor was designed to resist bullets but not artillery fire according to an 1863 article in the Scientific American, they would stay the progress of a shell no better than so much brown paper. Small arms fire was unlikely to pierce both the iron jacket and the wood insulation between the jacket and the boiler itself, but could puncture the water tank in the tender, and here a shell has...

Museums And Collections

A fine place for research using printed matter on Confederate sharpshooters, as its library has over 3500 books, brochures and pamphlets on the subject, while its archives contain many original letters, documents, maps, and photographs. The Army's official repository of military history, the Institute has a large collection of copies of Civil War soldier photographs, including those of sharpshooters, as well as written material on them.

Berdans Sharpshooters

American Civil War Berdans Sharpshooters

One of the better photographs of Major General Ulysses S. Grant who cared little for smart dress, but who habitually wore a bow tie. David Scheinmann. One of the better photographs of Major General Ulysses S. Grant who cared little for smart dress, but who habitually wore a bow tie. David Scheinmann. impossible to tell, from old black and white photographs. Berdan's Sharpshooters' forage caps were made out of heavy wool and were forest green in colour. Visors differed from the standard enlisted man's cap and resemble the pattern of a McDowell forage cap visor. The men originally sported ostrich plumes in their kepis, but it seems that with rigorous combat in the field these would have quickly worn out.

CPrivate US Coloured Infantry

1830 Army Uniform Images

Standard fatigue uniform with no special distinctions, except that in many cases many regiments received uniforms of excellent quality, the normal coarse cloth having temporarily run out at the time the coloured regiments were raised. This plate, however, illustrates two variations, both taken from contemporary photographs. The private wears the regulation full-dress frock-coat with the collar turned down, and has a kepi covered in a black 'waterproof', a common addition in wet weather. The 1st Sergeant of the 56th Coloured Infantry (originally the 3rd Arkansas Infantry African Descent ) wears what appears to be a shell-jacket, but which was, in fact, a cut-down frock-coat (note the piping on collar and cuffs). The other figure (taken from photographs of Lieutenant-Colonel William Hays and 1st Lieutenant William N. Dennison of the 2nd Artillery) wears a more unorthodox and yet very common style of uniform, consisting of an other ranks' fatigue blouse with rank-bars sewn on, with shirt...

The siege of Vicksburg

Lever Wheel Gears

Organized baseball was gathering a foothold in American life during the Civil War years. Northern towns had the peace, prosperity, and leisure time to establish simple baseball leagues. This is an 1864 photograph of the Brooklyn Atlantics, a baseball team from Brooklyn, New York. The Atlantics had their team photographs mounted on palm-sized pieces of cardboard. The photographs were passed around like modern-dav baseball cards.

CPrivate 8th Wisconsin Service Dress

79th New York Volunteer Infantry Uniform

The figures of the 21st Michigan and 8th Wisconsin (both taken from contemporary photographs) show typical variations of the campaign uniform. The 21 st Michigan almost entirely wore battered black 'slouch' hats with or without leather bands the fatigue-blouse in this case worn with the top button unfastened and the lapels turned back, though a number of full dress frock-coats were also worn. The regulation k pi was also worn, having a brass badge in the form of a hunting horn with '79' in the centre the equipment was of the standard U.S. issue. The Scottish costume soon disappeared when active campaigning began, like the more exotic costume of other volunteer regiments even before First Bull Run many had abandoned the kilt and truibhs for the regulation light blue trousers as illustrated. However, some of the former were worn at the battle, as confirmed by photographs of prisoners wearing kilts and truibhs and one unnamed Captain is recorded as having been loudly cheered for chasing...

The Port Royal expedition

Port Royal Expedition

US Marine Re Daniel O'Connor, who served aboard the USS Cumberland and survived the attack of the Virginia. Here he poses in full dress uniform the two yellow collar and cuff loops have printed black, as is common in photographs of this period. (Courtesy David M.Suliivan) US Marine Re Daniel O'Connor, who served aboard the USS Cumberland and survived the attack of the Virginia. Here he poses in full dress uniform the two yellow collar and cuff loops have printed black, as is common in photographs of this period. (Courtesy David M.Suliivan)

Museums And Reenactment

107th Colored Infantry Band

At the war's end, most of the African American regiments were mustered out, and sent home. Here the troops of the 54th USCI greet their wives and children upon their discharge. USCT soldiers, like their white counterparts, were allowed to keep their personal weapons. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) The band of the 107th USCI. Although the bandsmen are all black, the bandmaster (left) is a white NCO. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) The band of the 107th USCI. Although the bandsmen are all black, the bandmaster (left) is a white NCO. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division)

CPrivate Infantry Volunteers

Confederate Navy Officer

The figures illustrated in this plate (taken from contemporary photographs and engravings) show typical volunteer and militia uniforms worn in the early months of the Civil War by the Confederacy. One uniform is based upon a much earlier style, including a flat-topped forage cap covered with black 'waterproof' as worn during the U.S.-Mexican War, and braided shell-jacket. The rifleman wears a leather 'hunting shirt', a traditionally-American garment worn by 'backwoodsmen' and pioneers for more than a century prior to the Civil War.

126th Pennsylvania Infantry

Blue Dragoon

Photographs of men of the 1st Infantry Regiment taken in early 1862 near Richmond show mostly frock coats, some with stripes across the chest like those sported by Mississippi troops. Most have cadet-pattern forage caps with regimental designations spelled out on their crowns in what appear to be brass letters.

Union Infantry Equipment

Union Infantry Equipment

Standing like the Emperor Napoleon, with hand in coat, was a popular pose for many Civil War soldiers having their photographs taken. This soldier stands almost completely accoutred and the top of his bayonet in its scabbard can just be seen, but he appears to lack a cartridge box. David Scheinmann. Standing like the Emperor Napoleon, with hand in coat, was a popular pose for many Civil War soldiers having their photographs taken. This soldier stands almost completely accoutred and the top of his bayonet in its scabbard can just be seen, but he appears to lack a cartridge box. David Scheinmann.

Color Plate Commentary

An African American soldier posting guard at an artillery park. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) An African American soldier posting guard at an artillery park. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) Charleston was considered by the Union to be the cradle of the revolution. The 55th Massachusetts is pictured marching through the city after its capture. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) Charleston was considered by the Union to be the cradle of the revolution. The 55th Massachusetts is pictured marching through the city after its capture. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division)

USA Brigadier Generals Service Dress

From original photographs, and show how the personal whim of individual officers led to numerous non-regulation styles being worn on active service. The black felt hat could be 'punched up' in the crown to resemble a dunce's cap, which style, though appearing slightly ridiculous, was favoured by General Burnside and extensively copied by his staff. The more usual method of wearing the hat (as shown on the other figure) resembled the full dress style. General McDowell wore a pith helmet as a protection from the sun it was described as 'like an inverted washbowl'.

Irish American Units in the Civil

In both the North and the South, whole regiments and individual companies were recruited among the Irish immigrant communities. Whether New York factory-workers or New Orleans dock-hands, they volunteered in tens of thousands to fight on both sides. Meagher's Irish Brigade of the Army of the Potomac won immortality at Fredericksburg but the brigade's Fighting Irish 69th New York had already met their countrymen of Wheat's Louisiana Tigers in battle at First Manassas, and many largely Irish units would serve with the Confederate Army of Tennessee. The text is illustrated with rare photographs and meticulous color uniform plates.

From Slave To Soldier

This photograph of a young black Union army drummer named Jackson was circulated all across the North, together with a photograph of the same young man dressed in the rags he had been wearing when he showed up behind Union lines as an escaped slave. Some white Northerners doubted that former slaves could be turned into disciplined soldiers. The pair of photographs were shown to convince those doubters that slaves could be trained to fight for the freedom of others in bondage.

The Soldier In Battle

Mine Creek Battlefield

Were these men born brothers or did they become brothers-inarms on the battlefield Today we do not know. The bonds formed on the battlefield often transcended those of birth. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) Were these men born brothers or did they become brothers-inarms on the battlefield Today we do not know. The bonds formed on the battlefield often transcended those of birth. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) Milliken's Bend probably saw the most ferocious hand-to-hand fighting of the Civil War, with neither the Confederate Texans nor the USCT regiments willing to yield. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) Milliken's Bend probably saw the most ferocious hand-to-hand fighting of the Civil War, with neither the Confederate Texans nor the USCT regiments willing to yield. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) A regiment's colors - its regimental flag - were a rallying point, and a symbol of the regiment....

Tool Of Union Victory

Organized baseball was gathering a foothold in American life during the Civil War years. Northern towns had the peace, prosperity, and leisure time to establish simple baseball leagues. This is an 1864 photograph of the Brooklyn Atlantics, a baseball team from Brooklyn, New York. The Atlantics had their team photographs mounted on palm-sized pieces of cardboard. The photographs were passed around like modern-day baseball cards.

A nineteenthcentury inheritance

This must have been the same Larrea who, when called upon to assess the historical value of Goma's secret archive, took 257 photographs of its documents. His heirs offered these to the Arxiu Nacional de Catalunya in 1996.8 As for the fragments that Larrea published in La Voz de Madrid, Juan de Iturralde (the pseudonym of Juan de Usabiaga, a Basque priest) reproduced them, with ironic comments, in El catolocismo y la cruzada de Franco.9 There is another copy, it transpires, in the University of Navarra, which came from the archive of the Valencian tycoon and patron of culture and the arts, Muiioz Peirats, from which in turn Gonzalo Redondo quotes numerous extracts, some extensively and many of which did not appear in La Voz de Madrid.10 The most interesting items in this collection, since they show how this group of extreme Right-wing bishops thought and acted, are the notes that Goma took, during a meeting in Anglet (France) with Segura on 23 July 1934,11 and sealed them in an...

Flag Of Fort Sumter

After the surrender of Sumter, Southerners commemorated the occasion by posing for photographs at the fort and by carrying away bits of the structure as mementos. A piece of the Union garrison's shattered flagstaff was cut, polished, and made into a walking stick for the leader of the Southern force there, General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard.

Readers Guide

Length biography, boldfaced cross-references direct readers to other individuals profiled in the two-volume set. Finally, each volume includes photographs and illustrations, an American Civil War Timeline that lists significant dates and events of the Civil War era, and a cumulative subject index. American Civil War Almanac This work presents a comprehensive overview of the Civil War. The volume's fourteen chapters cover all aspects of the conflict, from the prewar issues and events that divided the nation to the war itself an epic struggle from 1861 to 1865 that changed the political and social landscape of America forever. The chapters are arranged chronologically and explore such topics as the events leading up to the war, slavery, Europe's view of the war, the secession of Southern states, various Civil War battles, and Reconstruction. Also included are two chapters that cover two unique groups during the Civil War women and blacks. The Almanac also contains over ninety...

Editorially Speaking

Theauthor, Bill Cracknell, has written six other Profiles, but the picture research for this one must have extended him to the limit. Despite the fact that he has been at sea on flying duties with the US Navy he has managed to locate a remarkable series of photographs, many of which were taken during 1 862-65, when photography itself was still in a primitive stage. sinking of this ship which led to Admiral Farragut's famous'Damn the torpedoes I Full speed ahead', and the salvage operation promises to be a most interesting piece of nautical archaeology. But of course it soon became obvious that there were no photographs of Tecumseh, and our readers would not have been pleased to have 24 pages of solid text. Accordingly we broadened the approach, and I feel that we have lost little by this and gained a lot. Mr Andrew Jones of Normanton, Yorkshire, has written to point out thatthe photograph of Scharnhorst in dry dock at Brest on page 203 of Profile 33 is probably incorrectly captioned....

Isbn 1 85532 721 X

Many thanks to the following Don Pfraz, Peter Harrington at Ann S. K. Brown, Scott Hartwig at Gettysburg, and Bill Gallop for their help with the photographs and the manuscript. I wish to thank my wife Una for standing in the cold whilst I wandered about the battlefield. All period photographs courtesy of the Anne S. K. Brown Military Collection, Brown University Library. Other photos by the author.

Child of immigrants

In 1839, Brady moved to New York City, where he worked as a department store clerk. He spent much of his free time, however, learning about the fascinating new world of photography. Over the previous few years, the discoveries of inventors Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre (1789-1851) and Samuel F. B. Morse (1791-1872) had made it possible to take the first photographs. The process of creating these early photographs called daguerreotypes in honor of Louis Daguerre was very primitive. For example, cameras were far too heavy to be held by hand, photographic subjects had to remain still for fifteen seconds or more to avoid looking blurry, and processing of pictures required cumbersome (difficult to handle) chemicals and equipment.

Brady and Lincoln

In 1860, Brady's studio took several portraits of Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865 see entry) that were used in his presidential campaign. The two men established a friendly relationship. After Lincoln won the 1860 election, Brady and his assistants received special status as semiofficial photographers to the White House. In addition to taking pictures of Lincoln's family, friends, and cabinet members, they also took many portraits of the president himself. Alexander Gardner alone took more than thirty photographs of Lincoln during his presidency. When the Civil War between the North and South began in April 1861, Brady's studios were flooded with Northern soldiers who wanted to leave pictures with their loved ones before heading off to war. Brady was inspired by the sight of these young men in uniform. He believed that photographs could provide a powerful historical record of the First, Brady obtained permission from Lincoln to accompany Union troops into the field. He then worked with his...

Candidate Lincoln

In Lincoln's time, presidential candidates did not make many personal appearances. Their supporters did the traveling and made all the speeches. Printed portraits of the candidates were posted on walls or passed around to friends. Presidential candidates Stephen Douglas and John C. Breckinridge embraced new technology in 1860 and had photographs of themselves distributed. Abraham Lincoln was also photographed that year. However, not even his staunchest supporters believed Lincoln was handsome, and pictures of him were rarely seen. Many people who voted for Lincoln had no idea what he looked like. After the election, a little girl wrote to him, suggesting that he grow whiskers. He did. Today he is remembered as a man with a beard.

All Other Regions

I would like to thank my parents for financial support that made my trips to Russia and the Ukraine possible. Lt Coi. Tom Hill man. USA, astutely assisted with translations white providing his usual period acumen. Once again, David Fletcher of the Tank Museum rendered professional and courteous assistance. I would like to thank Maxim Kolomiets of Moscow, who contributed several photographs from his vital collection, as well as the following Russian historians S. I. Drobiazko, M. A. Maltsevoy, A. I. Tininu and S.I. Gnedinu* The following allowed me to photograph contributions for this book the Regional History Museums at Dnepropetrovsk, Kharkov, Kramatorsk, Lugansk, Zaporozhye, Donetsk and the Kiev Arsenal each in the Ukraine), and the Central Armed Forces Museum, Moscow,

Marines 186165

Photographs Photographs The part played in the Civil War by the small Marine Corps of the United and Confederate States is overshadowed by the confrontations of the great armies. Nevertheless, the coastal and riverine campaigns were of real importance, given the strategic significance of the Federal blockade of southern ports, and of the struggle for the Mississippi River. Marines wearing blue and gray fought in many dramatic actions afloat and ashore - ship-to-ship engagements, cutting-out expeditions, and coastal landings. This book offers a comprehensive summary of all such battles, illustrated with rare early photographs, and meticulously researched color plates detailing the often obscure minutiae of Marine uniforms and equipment.

Aftermath

Than 16,409 Confederates, for a grand total in excess of 31,165 casualties for the Maryland Campaign. This was considered quite shocking, a general feeling reinforced by the circulation in civilian urban areas for the first time of photographs made on the battlefield of recent corpses. The horror of the war was brought home to many individuals, both civilian and military, by Antietam.

Black soldiers

The overwhelming majority of black soldiers, perhaps 150.000 of the nearly 180,000. came from slavery. Often they fled from the fields as Union armies passed nearby, or they undertook a risky trek to locate Federal lines. Here two photographs expose the uplifting nature of military service. In one, we see a boy in his slave clothes in the other, he has transformed into a drummer boy for the US army. (Left. Library of Congress Right US Army)

The Plates

The Duryea Family Colonial America

His kepi is also the same style as thai worn b A3, and the castle motif on A2's collar is a regulation engineer's collar insignia, li seems Ellsworth had his Cadets wear them on their Chasseur dress, either because he simply liked the design or because he planned to have an engineer company within the ranks of his Cadets, whose duties would include setting up tents. The castle insignia, which does not show up well in photographs, has been interpreted by some historians as a letter 'H' worn b the Zouave Cadets because The I 14th Pennsyh anta were a particularly' fine looking outfit, and as Meade's Headquarters Guard at the end of the war they w ere also one of the most photographed Zouave regiments. This Zouave is dressed in classic 114th style. His jacket is trimmed with red worsted lace tombeaux, daintier than the red rape used b other Zouave uniforms. Also note the delicate red cord trefoils above the blue cuffs. Until original 114th uniforms were unearthed, the colour of the cuffs...

Custer S Uniforms

The Generals For The Battle Antietam

Photographs of Custer taken early in the war when he was a captain, show him to be quite tamely dressed in a short dark blue jacket open at the collar to reveal a flowing neckerchief, and sky blue trousers. But when Custer was promoted to Brigadier General at the age of 23, he wore a black velvet uniform adorned with gold lace. One contemporary report said that he looked like 'a circus rider gone mad'. Rather like his hero, the Napoleonic Cavalry general Murat, Custer had a taste for exotic uniforms and the panache to carry them off.

The Confederate Navy

Navy Captain Insignia

The first Confederate Navy officers' uniforms appear, from photographs of officers of the CSS Sumter, to have been dark blue like those of their US Navy counterparts, save for cuff rank insignia. The insignia were made up of gold stripes, one for a lieutenant and two for a commander. The

Uniforms 1 94649

Kmt Thompson Smg

The mixture of pre- and post-1946 uniforms was also evident in the dress of Nationalist officers. Officers had a better chance to acquire US uniforms, and photographs suggest that the decision to do so was often an individual choice. Photographs of officers of the same units show some wearing ski-caps and pre-1946 field uniforms while comrades wear post-1946 US-type uniform. The difference, perhaps surprisingly. does not appear to have depended on the age of the individual, and may have been a question ofwealth. The uniforms of the various paramilitary and militia forces were usually indistinguishable from those of the regular army. The PPC and the other militarized police and militia had a low priority for new uniforms and weapons. Photographs suggest that most PPC soldiers wore the US-type khaki peaked service cap along with nondescript winter grey or summer light khaki uniforms. Police units were usually seen in dark blue uniforms with either peaked caps or the German M35 steel...

Pennsylvania

Peninsular Campaign

The uniform produced with this material included, generally, a grey forage cap plain grey-trousers and a plain, short jacket with a standing collar, keeper loops at each side to hold the waist belt, and nine to 12 buttons down the front. The state's Quartermaster also bought 13,000 pairs of 'linen duck' trousers and 'undress brown linen trousers', which were also widely issued. It is known, largely through photographs, that the following infantry regiments wore these grey uniforms when first organised the 12th, 28th, 29th, and the 71st (trimmed with red). The 27th and 62nd Regiments may also have worn these grey uniforms.

Accoutrements

28th North Carolina Infantry Regiment

The study of photographs also revealed that six per cent of enlisted men wore rectangular cast brass plates marked 'CSA'. This type may have been designed in response to 1861 regulations which called for a gilt rectangular sword belt plate, 'two inches wide, with a raised bright rim a silver wreath of laurel encircling the arms of the Confederate States' . No beltplates exactly fitting this description have ever been found. The plainer 'CSA' rectangular plates appear to have been made first in the Atlanta Arsenal, and their widest distribution was among troops of the Army of Tennessee. It appears that troops of the Stonewall Brigade, among other Army of Northern Virginia soldiers, were also issued this type of plate. Francis Minchemer, of Griffin, Georgia, was contracted to produce 4,000 of them, using scrap brass from the Atlanta Arsenal. They were about 2 ins. by 2 ins. and, as with all Southern-made brass objects, the heavy concentration of copper in the alloy gave the metal a...

Nuckolls Canteen

1863 Spencer Repeating Carbine Rifle

The Third Army Corps Badge 18ct gold badge was made by Tiffany and worn by Colonel Madison M. Cannon, Company G, 40th New York Infantry. It is accompanied by photographs, including one of him in uniform wearing this very badge. Also included are his wedding pictures in both albumen and tintype. A remarkable and very beautiful corps badge, fully documented, from this hard fighting officer whose regiment lost 420 men during 3 years. Known as the Mozart Regiment, they were recruited in New York City and fought in all the battles against Lee's Army of Northern Virginia - including the surrender at Appomattox. This badge was designed in September 1863. All officers of the old Third Corps joined the organization to take care of each other's families should they fall in battle 7,500 Accompanying this uniform are copy-print photographs of their camp near Louisville where they are wearing similar uniforms to this. Less Confederate Antietam belt set made of tarred linen cut from a rubberized...

Southern Tigers

New York Military Uniforms

One ojthe best photographs of Civil li ar Zouaves ever taken is this group of Collis' Zouaves, these turbuned Zoos-Zoos are Company G of the I Nth Pennsylvania photographed at Petersburg in 18l 4. Ill the men have the look of proud veterans, anil it's little wonder that General Meade selected the regiment to be his headquarters guard. ( Michael l McAfee)

Primary Sources

Although most of Harry Browne's Spain's Civil War (2nd edn, London, 1996) is an established secondary work, the text includes bracketed references to the many document extracts that follow it. In contrast, Patricia Knight's The Spanish Civil War (Basingstoke, 1991) is document-centred, with source-related questions at the end of each chapter. Ronald Fraser's Blood ofSpain (London, 1979 86) is built on testimony from the 300-plus eyewitnesses he interviewed in the 1970s, interwoven with his own commentary. In Homage to Catalonia (originally published 1938 Harmondsworth, 1989 edn) George Orwell shares his perceptions of the war in that region and its ramifications, and writes compellingly of his experiences with the POUM militia. Appendix II is a model of vigorous source analysis where Orwell dissects Communist press reports. Penguin Audiobooks have an abridged version of Homage. Many secondhand bookshops have 'search' systems for out-of-print books David Mitchell's The Spanish Civil...

Training

William Penn And Philadelphia

Learning to handle firearms transformed slaves into soldiers. Blacks and their white officers knew that someone who could shoot was too dangerous to keep as a slave. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) When a shortage of qualified officers for the African American regiments developed, a training school was established in Philadelphia. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) When a shortage of qualified officers for the African American regiments developed, a training school was established in Philadelphia. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division)

The Avengers

British Second Lieutenant Uniform 1939

his determined-looking chafitttter is Private John Langdon Hard of the Salem Zouaves, who became Company of the 8th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. Pistols and knives stuck under hells was a macho display favoured by many volunteers early in the war when they had their photographs taken. John l.augdon H ard was obviously out to impress. (Michael J, McAfee) his determined-looking chafitttter is Private John Langdon Hard of the Salem Zouaves, who became Company of the 8th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. Pistols and knives stuck under hells was a macho display favoured by many volunteers early in the war when they had their photographs taken. John l.augdon H ard was obviously out to impress. (Michael J, McAfee)

The March to the

Sherman March The Sea Regiments

This picture of Union soldiers resting among the rubble of a Georgia house was taken outside Atlanta. The destruction is remarkable. Even the home's window frames are removed. There are no known photographs of similar destruction along the March to the Sea. The Northern army moved too rapidly and was too spread out to be captured easily with slow, old-fashioned nineteenth-century photographic equipment.

Black volunteers

Robert Smalls The Slave

Some prejudiced Northerners believed that black volunteers could do heavy labor and small tasks in the army, but they were not sure these volunteers would fight. When given the chance, though, black fighting men proved their bravery in combat. Many posed for photographs like this one, demonstrating that they had combat training and fighting skills. Attitudes about race were not the same all over the South. In lower Louisiana, for instance, there had been a tradition of black military service already. Free black volunteers had fought to defend the citv of New Orleans during the * War of 1812. When the Civil War broke out, free New Orleans blacks raised the Louisiana Native Guards regiment and volunteered to defend their city once again. Some, like this regiment member, even had their photographs taken in uniform. But the government of the Confederacy could not overcome its racial prejudice. It would not allow the Native Guards into its army. This photograph of a young black Union army...

Confederate Weapons

Colt Detachable Butt Stock

Plains rifles were common in Texas and the Territory, being made by the same gunsmiths who supplied trade guns, or by the Hawken brothers of St Louis. Barrels were generally octagonal, between 26in and 38in long, and calibers ranged from .28in to .53 in. Double or set triggers were common. The bottom example of these three exhibits typical Indian usage. The barrel is from the M1817 Common rifle, the lock and stock by Henry Golcher the wedges have been lost and replaced with rawhide. (Author's photographs National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum)

Massachusetts

M1842 Musket

When the Civil War began the state's quartermaster-general was ordered to have uniforms made of 'blue flannel or of some suitable material of blue color'. Photographs of the 2nd Michigan Volunteer Infantry Regiment show them wearing dark blue trousers and dark blue waist-length jackets with standing collars shoulder straps that run from the shoulder seam to a small button next to the collar and nine large buttons down the front. On 24 August 1861 Michigan's governor cabled the US Secretary of War that 'the Sixth Regiment of Michigan Volunteer Infantry . . . will be supplied with uniforms (of blue), undershirts, drawers, forage-caps, stoc kings, and shoes, and with tents, cooking utensils, haversacks, and canteens. I request that provision may be made furnishing them with arms and accoutrements'. Further, he wrote, the 7th was 'supplied with clothing and camp equippage similar to that furnished the Sixth Regiment'. Both the 1st and 5th Regiments would receive this type of clothing as...

Writing Home

During the Civil War, soldiers started a practice that continues to this day carrying photographs of their faraway wives and children with them. This photograph of a Southern soldier's little girl was carried in a hinged leather case and held in place with a brass frame.

The Pti tes

Legion Condor Abzeichen

Main sources, apart from photographs in published and unpublished collections, and surviving items of uniform and equipment in the Imperial War Museum, London, were J. M. Bueno, Uniformes Militares de la Guerra Civil Espa ola, San Martin, Madrid, 1971 articles by C. A. Norman in issues 66 and 67 of Tradition magazine and an article on armoured vehicles by Stephen Zaloga in Model world magazine, now defunct.)

Headgear

149th Bucktail Soldiers

Photographs showing enlisted men in shirtsleeves are comparatively rare. Note the man's braces and his shirt's baggy sleeves and small collar. This was the most common pattern of shirt found in the Civil War. David Scheinmann. Photographs showing enlisted men in shirtsleeves are comparatively rare. Note the man's braces and his shirt's baggy sleeves and small collar. This was the most common pattern of shirt found in the Civil War. David Scheinmann.

Mississippi

Mississippi Infantry

Hats were black, broad-brimmed, 'looped up on three sides, when on parade, to be ornamented with cord, tassel and plumes the plumes to be made of horse hair'. Major-generals had long, flowing white plumes brigadier-generals, red plumes tipped with white medical officers, green plumes adjutant general's corps officers, yellow plumes quartermaster general's department, blue plumes ordnance corps officers, blue plumes tipped with red and other officers and men, plumes of branch-of-service colour 'with a yellow metal number of their Regiments below the plume socket'. Hat cords were also in branch or corps colours. While these hats appear from photographs to have been common, the plumes seem to have been but rarely worn. Judging from photographs, this uniform was not only issued in 1861, but worn for some considerabli time after.

Railroad Deaths

1858 Utica Train Wreck

Train wrecks were almost as common in the 19th century as automobile wrecks are today, but they were far more costly in human lives and property damage. An 1855 accident on the Camden & Amboy line near Burlington, New Jersey, left cars crushed and bodies of passengers and livestock scattered about the site. This lithograph was done from a drawing made immediately after the accident. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division LC-USZ62-1383 ) Train wrecks were almost as common in the 19th century as automobile wrecks are today, but they were far more costly in human lives and property damage. An 1855 accident on the Camden & Amboy line near Burlington, New Jersey, left cars crushed and bodies of passengers and livestock scattered about the site. This lithograph was done from a drawing made immediately after the accident. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division LC-USZ62-1383 )

Menat Arms Series

Each title in this series gives a brief history of a famous fighting unit, with a full description of its dress and accoutrements, illustrated with eight colour plates and many drawings and photographs. Collectors of militaria, war-gamers, and historians will find no other series of books which describe the dress of each unit so comprehensively. The series will range widely in time and terrain, with a special effort to include some of the lesser-known armies from other lands. About twelve titles will be published each year.

Knapsacks

Fully Equipped Infantry Soldier

Standing by a stack of arms and a typically ornate drum, the sergeant major is fully clothed and equipped and carries a regulation sword. This image is one of a contemporary series of photographs made to demonstrate the dress of the various Union services. Few soldiers would have looked as ideal as this on campaign. David Scheinmann.

Cravats

Civilian shirts, brought from home, were also very popular. The Louisiana cavalry sergeant described, in a series of letters sent throughout the war, how he wore striped, blue linen, yellow checked, and bird's-eye calico shirts. Plaid and polka-dotted shirts also appear in original photographs of enlisted and commissioned Confederates.

Appearance And Dress

Swinderby 1968

Most black soldiers procured a studio photo of themselves in uniform, often with weapon in hand. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) Most black soldiers procured a studio photo of themselves in uniform, often with weapon in hand. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) Company E of the 104th USCI pose outside their barracks in their best uniforms shortly before being discharged. The quality of uniforms issued to black soldiers is obvious in this photograph. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division) Company E of the 104th USCI pose outside their barracks in their best uniforms shortly before being discharged. The quality of uniforms issued to black soldiers is obvious in this photograph. (Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division)

Photography

The Civil War was the first time in American history that photography was extensively used to make a public record of the events that took place. The art of photography was only 21 years old when the Civil War started, but it was already hugely popular in the United States. For the first time, middle class Americans were able to have their portraits taken, since photographs were much less expensive Photographers not only took portraits of soldiers, they also traveled to camps and battlegrounds, recording the events of the war before and after they took place. Most of these photographs used a wet-plate negative a glass plate chemically treated, then exposed to the image from 5 to 30 seconds, creating a negative that could be printed on multiple pieces of paper. The most famous photographer of the Civil War was Mathew Brady, a very successful portrait photographer in New York before the war. Brady photographed many important political leaders and foreign dignitaries in his studio and...

Rejected Volunteer

Attitudes about race were not the same all over the South. In lower Louisiana, for instance, there had been a tradition of black military service already. Free black volunteers had fought to defend the city of New Orleans during the War of 1812. When the Civil War broke out, free New Orleans blacks raised the Louisiana Native Guards regiment and volunteered to defend their city once again. Some, like this regiment member, even had their photographs taken in uniform. But the government of the Confederacy could not overcome its racial prejudice. It would not allow the Native Guards into its army.

Get Paid to Take Digital Photos

Get Paid to Take Digital Photos

Reasonable care has been taken to ensure that the information presented in this book isĀ  accurate. However, the reader should understand that the information provided does not constitute legal, medical or professional advice of any kind.

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