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Jan.: Fairfax successful in north; Earl of Leven leads Scots army south to aid Parliament. Waller defeats Hopton at Cheriton (28 March). Earl of Newcastle besieged in York by Fairfax and Leven, later joined (May) by Earl of Manchester. Waller defeated by King at Cropredy Bridge (29 June). Rupert raises siege of York and is joined by Newcastle.Their 17,()()()-strong army is defeated by up to 28,000 Roundheads and Scots under Fairfax, Leven and Manchester at Marston Moor (2 July). Royalist Scottish general Montrose beats Lord Elcho at Tippermuir (1 Sept.);

sacks Perth, Aberdeen. The King forces Essex's army to surrender at Lostwithiel (2 Sept.). Waller and Manchester beaten by King at Second Newbury (27 October).

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