After years of dispute over constitutional and religious prerogatives between King and Parliament, King Charles I leaves London for York (May). Final negotiations fail; King calls upon loyal subjects for aid in crushing rebellion, and formally raises his standard (22 August). 23 Sept.: Royalist general Prince Rupert defeats Nathaniel Fiennes at Powick Bridge. King gains narrow advantage over Parliamentarian Earl of Essex in confused battle at Edgehill (23 Oct.); occupies Oxford as his headquarters; marches on London.

13 Nov.: Rupert turns back from London when blocked by Essex with London Trained Bands at Turnham Green.

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