(Above left) Meanwhile, the humbler soldiers have nothing to do but wait, in what calm they can command: infantry of the sergeant-major's company, James Carr's Regiment, Western Association, SK, at Roundway Down.
(Above) For many in the ranks of Parliament's armies their nonconformist faith was a shield against doubt and fear: this pikeman of Can 's, like some of his Civil War forebears, has scribed biblical quotations on his helmet. Roundway Down, SK.
(Left) Both sides brought passionate religious conviction to the Civil War, and encouraged chaplains to give rousing sermons before battle. This was particularly marked among the Roundheads, whose chaplains sometimes charged into battle with their units, bible in one hand and weapon in the other; hymns and psalms were often sung by whole regiments as they advanced. At Leeds in June 1644, for instance, one Rev. Jonathan Scholefield led a desperate assault in person, singing the 68th Psalm: "Let God arise, let his enemies be scattered..." Here a soberly dressed chaplain exhorts Colonel James Wardlaw's Dragoons to fight for God and Parliament: Roundway Down, SK.
(Above) Infantry form up for battle at Roundway Down; the Lord General of the Royalist army reviews the Prince Palatine's Tercio, consisting of Prince Rupert's and Earl Rivers' Regiments of Foot, SK. When only small units are represented at a muster they are brigaded together; in case of equal ranks, the officer with the largest number of men takes command. There is an officers' briefing at Tercio level, which is then relayed to the junior ranks. Most re-enacted battles follow the historical events, and with the same outcome, although it is not always possible to refight them on the actual historical sites. On the rare occasions when a battle which is not historically documented is re-enacted, a result is determined by carefully following 17th century tactics.
A Civil War field army's infantry were usually drawn up for a pitched battle in at least two lines of units, the regiments placed chequerboard-fashion so that the intervals in the front line were covered by units in the second line. Artillery pieces were also placed in some of the gaps between units. The horse were drawn up on each wing in at least two lines of units, similarly arranged. A reserve of cavalry might be held back behind the centre or one flank. On the extreme flanks, either extending the frontage, advanced under cover, or "refused", there might be units of dragoons or detached musketeers; and a small force might be pushed forward in some exposed position - or to seize one - as a so-called "forlorn hope".
(Right) A dismounted dragoon readies his musket as the troops move towards their positions. Roundway Down, SK.
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