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Sporadic regional warfare throughout year, each side enjoying mixed fortunes as many towns are taken and retaken. In the south and west main Royalist general is Sir Ralph Hopton; Parliamentary champion is Sir William Waller. In the north and Midlands Sir Thomas Fairfax and his father, for Parliament, mainly fight the Earl of Newcastle. Periodically the main Royalist "Oxford" army, under the King and Rupert, and the Earl of Essex's Roundhead army, manoeuvre against each other or the enemy's regional armies.

ยก9 Jan.: Hopton victorious at Braddock Down. Prince Maurice defeats Waller near Tewkesbury (13 April). Part of Essex's army beaten by Rupert at Chalgrove Field (18 June). Newcastle defeats Fairfax near Bradford. Hopton and Waller fight costly, indecisive battle at Lansdown Hill (5 July). The Queen brings the King important munitions from the Continent. Waller routed by Wilmot and Byron at Roundway Down (13 July). Rupert captures Bristol (26 July). Oliver Cromwell founds his reputation by cavalry victory near Gainsborough. Roundhead defeat at Torrington; Exeter surrendered to Royalists (4 Sept.). Essex defeats King at First Newbury (20 Sept.). Parliament ratifies Solemn League and Covenant with Scots (25 Sept.); King negotiates for troops from Ireland. Cromwell and Fairfax beat Royalists at Winceby (11 October).

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