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April: Formation, from commands of Essex, Waller and Manchester, of Parliament's New Model Army -permanent, unified force 22,000 strong for nationwide operations, under Sir Thomas Fairfax, Sir Philip Skippon (foot) and Oliver Cromwell (horse). Montrose's Highland and Irish army defeat Covenanters at Auldearn (9 May). The King, with 8,000 men, is decisively defeated by 13,000-strong New Model under Fairfax at Naseby (14 June). Fairfax defeats western Royalists under Goring at Langport (10 July). Montrose inflicts heavy loss on Covenanters at Kilsyth (15 Aug.). Royalist garrisons fall, including Bristol (10 Sept.). Montrose routed by David Leslie at Philiphaugh (13 September).

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