Stoneman George 182294

George Stoneman (see Plate Gl) was born in Busti, New York, on 22 August 1822. Educated at Jamestown Academy, he went on to West Point where he was graduated in 1846 - George McClellan was a classmate - and was commissioned into the 1st Dragoons. During the Mexican War he was the quartermaster for the Mormon Battalion on its

Waffen Letland

George Stoneman, standing center wearing from left shoulder to right hip the sash which indicates that he was serving as general officer of the day. He and his staff pose here in April 1863; a month later he would lead the Army of the Potomac's cavalry off on a fruitless raid during the Chancellorsville campaign.

march from Leavenworth, Kansas, to San Diego, California. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was a captain in the 2nd Cavalry - suffering, as a result of years in the saddle, from a chronic case of hemorrhoids.

Stoneman was quickly placed on McClellan's staff as a major. Commissioned a brigadier-general of volunteers on 13 August 1861, he was named chief of cavalry of the Army of the Potomac (essentially a staff post with no real command functions) when McClellan became army commander. During the Peninsula campaign he actually commanded an infantry division in III Corps, but during much of the campaign he was unable to ride because of sickness, which limited his activities. Even so, made a major-general of volunteers dating from 29 November 1862, he commanded III Corps at Fredericksburg (13 December).

When Hooker took over the Army of the Potomac, Stoneman was made chief of cavalry in a reorganization that made the army's cavalry an effective, independent organization - something he had unsuccessfully urged upon McClellan. He was sent with the Cavalry Corps to raid the rear of the Army of Northern Virginia during the Chancellorsville campaign of May 1863. One fellow general, while awaiting news of the results of a Stoneman raid, said, "I know Stoneman like a book. He will go to the proper spot like a cannon-ball, but when he gets there, like a shell he'll burst." Indeed, the only practical effect of this raid was to deprive the main army of its intelligence-gathering capacities when it needed them most.

After Chancellorsville, and as a result of this poor performance, Stoneman was replaced on 22 May by Alfred Pleasonton. Altera time as chief of the Cavalry Bureau in Washington he was returned to a combat

George Stoneman, standing center wearing from left shoulder to right hip the sash which indicates that he was serving as general officer of the day. He and his staff pose here in April 1863; a month later he would lead the Army of the Potomac's cavalry off on a fruitless raid during the Chancellorsville campaign.

command in the winter of 1864. Given XXIII Corps, he actually commanded the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Ohio during the Atlanta campaign. There his performance was again lackluster. Major-General David Stanley, who had earlier been chief of cavalry of the Army of the Cumberland, told a US Christian Commission delegate that Stoneman was "not competent to command a company."

Stoneman was captured on 31 July 1864 during a raid aimed at freeing prisoners kept at Camp Sumter near Andersonville, Georgia, at the head of two brigades serving as a rear guard to cover the escape of the rest of his command. That October he was exchanged, and commanded troops in eastern Tennessee, northwestern North Carolina, and southwestern Virginia during the last days of the war.

After the war Stoneman was breveted a major-general but assigned as colonel commanding the 21st US Infantry. He commanded the Department of Arizona until retirement in 1871. He then moved to an estate at San Marino, California, serving as railroad commissioner and a term as governor of California in 1882.1 le died in Buffalo, New York, on 5 September 1894, and was buried at Lakewood, New York.

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