General McClellan maneuvered to push Scott into retirement as well. McClellan ignored the general, saying that he understands nothing, appreciates nothing. Submitting his reports directly to Lincoln, he tried to convince Northern political leaders that Scott should resign. Lincoln tried to calm the bitter rivalry between the two generals, but his efforts failed. On November 1, Scott retired from active military service for reasons of health. In reality, though, it was the actions of McClellan and his political allies that forced him to retire.
PROFESSOR ROBERT O'NEILL, AO D.PHIL. (Oxon), Hon D. Litt. (ANU), FASSA, Fr Hist S, is the Series Editor of the Essential Histories. His wealth of knowledge and expertise shapes the series content and provides up-to-the-minute research and theory. lk m in 1936 an Australian citizen, he served in the Australian army (19SS-68) and has held a number of eminent positions in history circles, including the Chichele Professorship of the History of War at All Souls College, University of Oxford, 1987-2001, and the Chairmanship of the Board of the Imperial War Museum and the Council of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, London, lie is the author of many books including works on the German Army and the Nazi party, and the Korean and Vietnam wars. Now based in Australia on his retirement from Oxford, he was the Chairman of the Council of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, from 1999 to 2005. Professor O'Neill is currently the Planning Director of the United States Studies...
Mary Lincoln became obsessed with the idea that she was broke, but still could not stop herself from spending money extravagantly. During the late 1860s, she tried to sell some of her expensive clothing, jewelry, and furniture under an assumed name. This led to another embarrassing scandal, and she moved to Europe in order to avoid public criticism. She eventually returned to Chicago, and she received an annual pension (payment) from the U.S. Congress in 1870.
In 1884, some of her fellow Civil War veterans urged her to file for a veteran's pension (a monthly payment the government provides to retired service people). She asked the government to review her case, mostly because she hoped to have the desertion charge removed from her record. Government investigators found numerous witnesses willing to state that Emma Edmonds Seeyle and Franklin Thompson were the same person, and that Thompson had provided valuable service to the Union cause as a soldier, nurse, and spy. On March 28, 1884, the U.S. Congress granted Thompson an honorable discharge from the army and awarded Edmonds a veteran's pension of 12 per month.
In 1890, the U.S. government recognized Fremont's early contributions as an army officer and granted him a military pension. But he became ill and died a short time later, on July 13, 1890. Fremont was pleased to see that many of the areas he had explored became states before his death, including Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming. He brought the West to the attention of the American people and led the way for future settlers. As his wife once proclaimed, Cities have arisen on the ashes of his lonely campfires.
After the war ended in 1865, Newsom wrote a book about her experiences called Reminiscences of War Time. She also married a former Confederate officer, William H. Trader. Unfortunately, he managed their finances poorly and left her almost broke when he died in 1885. But Newsom managed to rebuild her life with the help of Southerners in the U.S. government. She moved to Washington, D.C., and worked in the Patent Office, Pension Office, and General Land Office until her retirement in 1916. She died on January 20, 1919.
Duty, October 31, 1861 - being broken down by official labors of from nine to seventeen hours a day, with a decided tendency to vertigo and dropsy, I had the honor to be waited on by President Lincoln, at the head of his Cabinet, who, in a neat and affecting address, took leave of the worn-out soldier. After retirement Winfield Scott went abroad for a short time before settling at West Point, where he died on 29 May 1866, having lived long enough to see victory achieved more or less as he had predicted. He lies in the Post Cemetery at the Academy.
Lincoln was among the last casualties in a war for which the exact human and material toll will never be known. At least 620,000 soldiers perished, together with an unknown number of civilians. The economic cost vastly exceeded anything in previous American history, amounting to billions of dollars in direct expenditures and untold millions more in the form of postwar pensions and lost productivity. Many parts of the Confederacy experienced far greater destruction than most of the North, and the South as a whole lost two-thirds of its assessed wealth (much of this was in the form of lost slave property). Some areas of the South did not recover fully from the effects of the war until well into the twentieth century.
The 8th Wisconsin apparently largely retained the frock-coat with the ubiquitous battered hat. The regiment was known as 'The Eagle Regiment' from their custom of taking the regimental mascot - an eagle - into battle with them, sitting on a specially-constructed perch. The eagle, named 'Old Abe' after President Lincoln, achieved fame by becoming the subject of a popular song ('Old Abe the Battle Eagle') by J. Bates and T. Martin Towne. After the war, the eagle passed into honourable retirement, maintained at state expense in Milwaukee. The companies of the 8th retained the titles of the small companies from which the regiment had been formed Company 'A' Wanapaca Union Rifles, 'B' Sheboygan County Independents, 'C' Eau Claire Eagles, 'D' Fox Lake Volunteer Rifles, 'E' Rough and Ready Guards, *F' Crawford County Volunteers, 'G'
To this day no one really knows what happened at Beal na mBlath but it was obvious that Collins' death affected Dalton. When he returned from his honeymoon in September 1922 his heart was no longer in the fight. He objected to the execution of captured Irregulars and resigned his commission in December to work briefly as the Secretary to the Senate. In a military career that had spanned eight years he had become a retired major-general at 24 on a pension of .117 per annum.
Duty, October 31, 1861 - being broken down by official labors of from nine to seventeen hours a day, with a decided tendency to vertigo and dropsy, I had the honor to he waited on by President Lincoln, at the head of his Cabinet, who, in a neat and affecting address, took leave of the worn-out soldier. After retirement VVinfield Scott went abroad for a short time before settling at West Point, where he died on 29 May 1K66, having lived long enough to see victory achieved more or less as he had predicted. He lies in the Post Cemetery at the Academy.
12 dragoons or musketeers 13 Lord Wifmot's Horse 14 Lord Grandison's Horse 15 Earl of Carnarvon's Horse 16 Lord Digby's Horse 17 Sir Thomas Aston's Horse 18 Henry Wentwonh 19 Sir Nicholas Byron 20 Richard Feilding 21 John Betasyse 22 Charles Gerard 23 Prince Maurice's Horse 24 Prince Rupert's Horse 25 Prince of Wales'Horse 26 King's Lifeguard 27 Sir John Byron's Ftegt (part) 28 Sir John Byron's Regt (pari) 29 Gentleman Pensioners 30 William Legge's Firelocks R Radway village Charles doubtless hoped that Essex would attack him uphill, but Essex, probably not wishing to initiate the first battle of an unprecedented war, remained immobile, so on the early afternoon of 23 October 1642 the Royalist army rolled down the hill, three brigades of foot in the centre and horse on the wings, meeting the Parliamentary army similarly arrayed. On the Royalist right, Rupert swept down upon Essex's left-flank horse who, demoralized by the defection of Sir Faith-full Eonescue's troop which changed...
Octavian's military resources had been built up considerably to undertake this conflict and were now markedly superior to Antony's. An abortive rising by Lepidus in Italy was swiftly defeated, and Octavian for once emulated his adoptive father's clemency. Lepidus was spared and allowed to live out the rest of his life in comfortable retirement, retaining his post as Pontifex Maximus, Rome's senior priest. In the meantime Antony had launched a major invasion of Parthia, beginning the war which Caesar had planned. Despite initial success, his offensive bogged down as the enemy harassed his supply lines. During the subsequent retreat the Romans suffered heavy casualties. The war had been a costly failure, but Antony refused the aid sent to him by his wife Octavia, and instead publicly praised Cleopatra for her assistance. His affair with the Egyptian Queen became more open, and they paraded both Caesarion and their own children. Over the next years the fragile alliance between Octavian...
Historians estimate that more than four hundred women disguised themselves as men in order to serve as either Union or Confederate soldiers during the Civil War. Of all these women, Emma Edmonds was the most remarkable. Adopting the name Franklin Thompson, she joined the Union Army early in the war and served for two years without revealing her true identity. She started out as a battlefield nurse, then made eleven successful missions behind Confederate lines as a spy. Edmonds used a variety of disguises during her spy missions. For example, she posed as a black man, a middle-aged Irish woman, a black woman, and a white Southern businessman. Many years after the war ended, the U.S. government recognized her contributions and awarded her a veteran's pension.
PROFESSOR ROBERT O'NEILL, AO D.PHIL. (Oxon), Hon D. Litt. (ANU), FASSA, Fr Hist S, is the Series Editor of the Essential Histories. His wealth of knowledge and expertise shapes the series content and provides up-to-the-minute research and theory. Horn in 1936 an Australian citizen, he served in the Australian army (1955-68) and has held a number of eminent positions in history circles, including the Chichele Professorship of the History of War at All Souls College, University of Oxford, 1987-2001, and the Chairmanship of the Hoard of the Imperial War Museum and the Council of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, London. He is the author of many books including works on the German Army and the Nazi party, and the Korean and Vietnam wars. Now based in Australia following his retirement from Oxford, he was the Chairman of the Council of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, from 1999 to 2005.
Not only the vast number of soldiers enrolled during the Civil War and now nearing retirement or no longer required, but also a significant number of the urban poor. Caesar had resisted pressure to abolish debt completely, the habitual desire of many citizens who lacked regular employment and lived in rented apartments, and arranged a more equitable system of repayment, but this measure would have eased the plight of many as well as adding to the number of prosperous
H The Telegraph Service wasn't part of either the Union or Confederate army, and the telegraph operators were actually civilians workingfor the Quartermasters Department. More than 300 telegraph operators died during the Civil War, and their families received no pension or other support from the government.
There he performed well enough against the Confederate Missouri Raid in October 1864. Breveted major-general at the end of the war, he still reverted to his regular rank of major, 2nd US Cavalry. In 1866 Pleasonton was offered a lieutenant-colonelcy in the 20th US Infantry, but declined it. Since this resulted in his being subordinate to Col. TJ.H.Wood, who had graduated from West Point a year after Pleasonton and was lower on the list of volunteer major-generals, and to Lt.Col. I.N.Palmer, who graduated two years after Pleasonton and had only been breveted major-general, Pleasonton resigned. Although he applied for retirement at his volunteer rank, this was refused. He held some minor Federal posts, but in 1888 he was placed on the retired list as a major. He died in Washington on 17 February 1897, and is buried in the Congressional Cemetery there. Pope's army was afterwards merged into the Army of the Potomac, and he was sent to command the Department of the Northwest. He served...
Early fought in all the major engagements with the Army of Northern Virginia from 1862 through 1864. He was a good commander, but hit his stride in the battle of Chancellorsville at Salem Church, stalling Sedgwick's advance. He had a small command and fought a gallant action. After Ewell's retirement, Early took a more active commanding role in the Army of Northern Virginia.
The muzzle was blown off this 300-pounder Parrott rifle in Battery Strong, part of the ring of Union force facing Charleston, it exploded on its 27th round, losing some 20 inches of tube. The tube was then cut down and fired another 371 rounds before more cracks around the muzzle forced the gun's retirement.
In a parallel development, government bureaucracy multiplied enormously during these years. Two new cabinet-level departments were created by Congress, Interior (1849) and Agriculture (1862). The Patent Office was given independent status, and the Pension Office was greatly expanded to handle the flood of veterans' claims
The Union counterattack on the morning of April 7 (above). Although elated with their success of the previous day Confederates were exhausted and demoralized by the arrival of Union reinforcements. Furthermore, their line was weakened by the withdrawal of Folk's division the previous evening when the retirement order had been misinterpreted. The Union counterattack on the morning of April 7 (above). Although elated with their success of the previous day Confederates were exhausted and demoralized by the arrival of Union reinforcements. Furthermore, their line was weakened by the withdrawal of Folk's division the previous evening when the retirement order had been misinterpreted.
Seward left his government position in March 1869, when Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885 see entry) became president of the United States. He returned to Auburn, but soon became restless in retirement. He subsequently went on a tour of the world with some family friends. Shortly after his return to Auburn, however, his health began to decline. He died on October 10, 1872.
After the war ended and Grant was elected president of the United States, Sherman became general in chief of all U.S. armies. He remained in that post for thirteen years, until his retirement from the army in 1883. The Republican political party tried to convince him to become their candidate for the presidency in 1872, but he consistently refused to run for office. If nominated I will not accept if elected I will not serve, he stated. In 1876, Sherman published a book about his life, Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. He died of pneumonia on February 14, 1891, in New York City. Thousands of people lined the streets as his casket passed by in a huge funeral procession. His body was taken by train to St. Louis, Missouri, where he was buried alongside his wife, who had died two years earlier. His son, Father Tom Sherman, conducted the burial service.
The Union army demobilized in rapid order, from one million strong at the end of the war to 80,000 men a year later. Yankee soldiers returned to their rendezvous point, received back pay, signed documents, and were officially mustered out of service. Others viewed the delay as another ridiculous government policy and simply walked home. Several decades later, when they applied for veterans' pensions, that decision proved nettlesome.
Not only did officers of the 8th Wisconsin Infantry have eagle sword belt plates, the regiment actually carried a live eagle as part of its insignia. Bought from a Chippewa Indian, Old Abe the Battle Eagle was carried into battle tethered on top of a special perch and saw action several times, including the siege of Vicksburg in May 1863. Old Abe survived the war only to die of smoke inhalation when fire swept through the Wisconsin Capitol building where he spent his retirement.
For nearly two years Sulla ruled as dictator with absolute power and only laid this down when he went into voluntary retirement. Before he did so, Sulla attempted to restore the Senate's position within the Republic, confirming its traditional powers and filling it with his supporters. He passed a law that was intended to prevent army commanders from following his own example and using their legions outside their own provinces without permission. The career pattern (cursus honorum) followed by Roman senators was also to be regulated more closely. The Republic was not to be dominated by a few individuals, but guided by the collective wisdom of the 600 senators. father, Pompeius Strabo ('squinty'). At the time Pompey was only 23 and, having never held public office, had no legal authority on which to base his power. Fighting with distinction in Italy, Sicily and north Africa, Pompey was granted the title Magnus ('The Great') by Sulla, though this may have been more than a little ironic....
This chapter begins with an obvious question that has never received a satisfactory answer what role did the Court play in the emergence of a royalist party To the extent that they have considered it at all, historians have usually taken one of two mutually incompatible positions with regard to this problem, neither entirely satisfactory. Some have treated the Court as the seedbed of royalism, an institution permeated by absolutist and crypto-Catholic values that provided the original core of the king's party and the ideology for which it fought.1 Despite its superficial plausibility, this view must confront the serious problem that several leading courtiers supported parliament in 1641, while others avoided active commitment by departing for the continent. Since the parliamentarian courtiers included two successive Lord Chamberlains, the Groom of the Stool, the Captain of the Gentlemen Pensioners, the Lord Admiral and a Secretary of State2 they cannot be considered a marginal group....
Peter Bruner became one of the first black employees of Miami of Ohio University, eventually retiring with a pension. Even then, those who had served in the USCT did better than those who had not. Life was hard for all blacks at the end of the 19th century, but it was harder for non-veterans. Veterans were eligible for pensions. Henry Buttler and his wife, Lucia, retired on the 75 month pension he received. James Spikes was 91 when he told an interviewer, The government gives me a pension now cause I was a soldier. It comes in right nice - it does that (Spikes Narrative). Some veterans were cheated of their pensions, but many received them. As William Baltimore, who served in the 4th USCHA Regiment, related to an interviewer, It was a lucky day when the Yankees gets me. If they hadn't I don't know what'd become of me. After I went blind, I had hard times. Some of my white friends dug up my record with the Yankees and got me a pension. Now I am sitting pretty for the rest of my life...
PROFESSOR ROBERT O'NEILL, AO D.PHIL. (Oxon), Hon D. Litt.(ANU), FASSA, Fr Hist S, is the Series Editor of the Essential Histories. His wealth of knowledge and expertise shapes the series content and provides up-to-the-minute research and theory. Born in 1936 an Australian citizen, he served in the Australian army (1955-68) and has held a number of eminent positions in history circles, including the Chichele Professorship of the History of War at All Souls College, University of Oxford, 1987-2001, and the Chairmanship of the Board of the Imperial War Museum and the Council of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, London. He is the author of many books including works on the German Army and the Nazi party, and the Korean and Vietnam wars. Now based in Australia on his retirement from Oxford he is the Chairman of the Council of the Australian Strategic Policy Institute.
Thus, for African American men and women the decision to flee or to stay, to fight or to sit idly by was fraught with painful choices. Adding to the chaos of African American family life was increased government interest in slave marriages, which marked a dramatic change for black families. As the federal government passed legislation allowing the wives of black soldiers to receive pensions, the government expressed a heightened interest in ''proper'' and ''improper'' marriages and ''moral'' and ''immoral'' activities of the widows. Still black families generally welcomed the intrusion of the public worlds of politics and war into their domestic affairs because they saw in such a blending of the public and private a means of achieving liberation.
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