Nowhere was the approach to infantry uniforms more starkly demonstrated than in the uniforms of the rifle regiments (also known as sharpshooters ) and the zouaves. Rifle uniforms were designed to be as inconspicuous as possible, the color of the uniforms being usually a dark green or a dark blue. The branch insignia had a green background, and the piping was also green. These elite units were few in number and 1 Rifle officer's Hardee hat insignia of the 8th New York Regiment (German Rifles) 2 Rifle officer's hat insignia
The 1st South Carolina Rifles was raised in 1861 by a prominent politician, James L. Orr, and quickly became an unusually large regiment, reaching a strength of over 1,500 within a few months of being formed. It served with the Army of Northern Virginia from Gaines' Mill all the way to Appomattox, by which time only a few hundred were left to surrender. They
This particularly handsome Rebel officer serves with the 5th Georgia's Company A. That unit, also known as the Clinch Rifles, was one of the South's most colorful, thanks to most of its companies having existed before the war and each bringing its own distinctive uniform in 1861. Company A, as seen here, wore green a broadcloth coat with gilt buttons and gold lace trim on the collar and sleeve, with trousers which matched, although of a slightly darker shade of green. The kepi was also green, with a badge
Having started the war with no arms industry, the Confederates quickly began to import weapons from abroad. Indeed, throughout the war, foreign gunmakers, especially in England, supplied large numbers of weapons and some 400,000 Pattern 1853 Enfield Rifle-Muskets are known to have been purchased in England by agents of the Confederate Ordnance Department (the Federal government purchased some 500,00 of the same weapon). Other models were imported in smaller quantities and saw limited use. In fact, despite the blockade, the importation of arms had been so successful that at the war's end there were more than enough guns, the problem was that there were just too percussion rifle (6) was, in fact, an I 3 British Pattern 1853 Enfield Short rifle 5 Kerr's Patent Rifle, British 6 British Brunswick Rifle 7 Bayonet for Brunswick Rifle 9 Cartridge box for British Pattern 1853 rifle-musket and short rifle 10 British Whitworth Patent Rifle with telescopic sight official British pattern. with a...
The projectiles shown here are not of the same caliber as this specific gun, but they illustrate a very successful pattern developed by General Charles T. James of Rhode Island, and patented in 1856. The James projectiles were also made in much larger calibers than those shown here. It was these larger types which were instrumental in breaching the walls of the Confederate-held Fort Pulaski, Georgia, on April 10, 1862. This action was one of the first in which rifled artillery was used at long range against a fortification. The result was a resounding success for the rifle and its explosive shell. 3 Model 1841 6-pounder bronze-cast smoothbore James, rifled to 3.67-inch (93mm) caliber
The Parrott was not a total success, however. In October, 1865, the Chief of Ordnance reported that The many failures, by bursting, of the celebrated Parrott guns in the land and naval service have weakened Confidence in them, and make it the imperative duty of this department to seek elsewhere for a more reliable rifle gun. This was apt to happen after prolonged service and the weak spot was usually just ahead of the breech band. At least one 20-pdr. Parrott in Massenburg's Georgia Battery burst at its muzzle on the second day of the siege of Chattanooga, so ii was not always the breech ilia) burst. The larger weapons were, however, more liable to burst than the standard field l()-pdrs., although none could be wholly trusted. The 20-pdr. Parrott rifle could be quickly spotted in the field by its massive breech. Markings indicate that this tube weighs 1,974 pounds. Gettysburg National Battlefield Park) A view of a 10-pdr. Parrott rifled cannon. (Gettysburg National Battlefield Park) A...
Company A of the 5th Georgia Infantry called itself the Clinch Rifles from the start of the war, and never yielded to official efforts to take the title away, nor did it relinquish its distinctive uniform. Indeed, most companies of this regiment wore differing outfits, causing General Braxton Bragg to call them the Pound Cake Regiment. Some wore green, but most opted for the light blue trousers and dark blue frock coat shown on the corporal at right. Two major distinctions were the dark blue kepi with the CR badge, and the Georgia State belt-plate. The two soldiers carry the Model 1841 Harpers Ferry Rifle and the typical wooden canteens seen on so many Rebels. As the war ground on, the 5th Georgia was issued with standard issue uniforms, like that on the soldier at left, though the men might still retain their colorful shirts. However they were dressed, these Georgians were found on many of the major battlefields of the South, and did not yield their arms until the very end. of the...
To make bullets, a thin lead bar was put into a pot and then set atop a fire. When the lead turned to liquid, it was poured into a bullet mold. After the lead cooled and hardened, the handles of the mold were pulled apart and the newly made bullet was pulled out. The other items here are tools that could be attached to a ramrod and used to clean a rifle barrel or remove a jammed bullet from it.
Ordnance Rifle made in 1863, (Gettysburg National Battlefield Park) A 3-in. Ordnance Rifle made in 1863, (Gettysburg National Battlefield Park) The end result was a 3-in. rifled weapon with clean lines and light weight. It was made with 0.5-in.-wide lands and grooves that were 0.84 inches wide. The standard tube weight was 820 lb., although many were slightly lighter. Tests made during the war with a pound of powder and a 9-lb, shell at 10 degrees showed a range of 2,788 yards, while a 20 degree elevation gave the weapon a range of 3,972 yards. It was also an exceptionally safe weapon only one 3-in. rifle was recorded as having burst in the Union Army during the entire war. It passed government tests and on June 25, 1801, the Ordnance Department ordered 2(H) rifled versions of this weapon, and another 100 smoothbores. In fact, the order was i tiickly changed lo make all 300 weapons titles, and eventually the Phoenix Iron Co. supplied the U.S. Army with 1,100 weapons by the...
A pair of 3-inch (76mm) Ordnance Rifles keep guard on a Civil War battlefield. Almost 1,000 3-inch Ordnance Rifles went to the Union armies during the war, and testimony to their accuracy came from all parties, including their targets. The Yankee three-inch rifle was a dead shot at any distance under a mile, proclaimed a Rebel artilleryman. No wonder that the Southerners emulated the weapon as best they could, but more often than not made use of captured guns and ammunition.
The Henry rifles these Illinois soldiers are holding were the models for some of the weapons that would be popular in the American West after the Civil War. They were not loaded at the muzzle. Metal cartridges holding the cap, gunpowder, and bullet were stored in a tube under the barrel. When the shooter pulled down a lever beneath the rifle's trigger, that movement threw out any used metal cartridge at the bottom of the barrel. When the lever was pulled back up, it inserted a new cartridge into the weapon from the tube beneath the barrel. The up-and-down movement of the lever also cocked the rifle. This meant the Henry could be loaded and fired repeatedly. This action led to these rifles being called repeaters.
Company A of the 5th Georgia Infantry called itself the Clinch Rifles from the start of the war, and never yielded to official efforts to take the title away, nor did it relinquish its distinctive uniform. Indeed, most companies of this regiment wore differing outfits, causing General Braxton Bragg to call them the Pound Cake Regiment. Some wore green, but most opted for the light blue trousers and dark blue frock coat shown on the corporal at right. Two major distinctions were the dark blue kepi with the CR badge, and the Georgia State belt-plate. The two soldiers carry the Model 1841 Harpers Ferry Rifle and the typical wooden canteens seen on so many Rebels. As the war ground on, the 5th Georgia was issued with standard issue uniforms, like that on the soldier at left, though the men might still retain their colorful shirts. However they were dressed, these Georgians were found on many of the major battlefields of the South, and did not yield their arms until the very end.
Although the rifle-musket was the primary shoulder weapon of the Union soldier, substantial numbers of rifles, both muzzle- and breech-loading, were issued to troops in the field. Of primary significance in firearms development were the magazine-fed Spencer (7) and Henry (8). There was a frenzy of invention in the North, spurred on by the war and lucrative government contracts, but only a few of the newly invented and patented guns ever saw as much service as the single-shot Springfield. The Spencer .56 caliber rifle was tested and adopted by the Union Army soon after the war started but little was done until the enterprising designer demonstrated the weapon to President Lincoln, who was so A different approach was adopted in the Henry rifle, which was probably the most advanced weapon used in the war, and was the predecessor of the celebrated Winchester lever-action weapons. The Henry (8) had a brass frame and was fitted with a sixteen-round, tubular magazine under the barrel, which...
1 ieavy Parrotts also had a tendency to break their elevating screws, due to the weight being distributed on the rear of the tube. With all this, the chief engineer in the Union Army outside (Charleston reported that There is perhaps no better system of rifled cannon than Parrot's sjc certainly none more simple in construction, more easily understood or that can, with more safety, lie placed in the hands of inexperienced men for use. The ease of making such cannon did not escape the Confederates, and J.R. Anderson & Co. cast Copies of them at its Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond beginning in November, 18(i 1. The first ones they cast were 6-pounder versions of the weapon, a bore size they continued producing through August, 1862. In July they east their first 30-pounder Parrott Copy. Starting in August, 1863, the Macon Arsenal cast some 20- and 30-pounder Parrotts as well. The Selma Naval Gun Foundry. Alabama, cast at least a dozen 30-pounder Parrott rifles for use on ships and harbor...
Army's M 1 861 4.5-inch siege rifle and the M1862 4.62-inch siege rifle were 12-pounder weapons that saw Wide use on both sides. The U.S. Army also developed its M1861 4.5-inch siege rifle, a weapon that looked much ike a 3-inch Ordnance Rifle hut was made of cast, not wrought, iron. One Union artillery expert later reported that The two siege batteries of 4.5-inch ordnance guns which accompanied the Army of the Potomac in all its movements from Fredericksburg were of great use from their superior range and accuracy, in silencing troublesome field batteries and in other field service and could be moved with the reserve artillery without impeding ihe march of the army The weapon, using a 3.25-pound charge behind a 25.5-pound patent Dyer shell at 10' elevation, had a range of some 3,265 yards. The 30-pound Hotchkiss or Schenkl projectiles were the most commonly used ammunition for this piece. Confederate officials also produced similar iron siege rifles, with the Tredegar Iron...
The Confederate Brooke Rifles (developed by the same Lieutenant John Brooke who was responsible for the Virginia) were quite similar to the Parrott rifles, the main difference being that, instead of one breech band, they were made up of several bands. In addition to solid shot, the Brookes fired spherical and conical shells, grape shot and cannister shells, and 6-foot-long triangular bolts similar to a harpoon. The weight of a 7-inch Brooke was 15,500 lbs. and the range about 2,000 yards.
Bierce freely admitted that his Civil War experiences had a big impact on his views of the world around him. The war's bloody violence and shocking casualties made him naturally suspicious of political and military leaders, and the sights and sounds of combat haunted his thoughts for the rest of his life. Years after the war had concluded, Bierce stated that To this day I cannot look over a landscape without noting the advantages of the ground for attack or defense. I never hear a rifle-shot without experiencing a thrill in my veins. I never catch the peculiar odor of gunpowder without having visions of the dead and dying.
Perhaps more than any other aspect of the war, rifled weapons gave rise to a longer and more protracted war. These rifles gave the armies a defensive advantage, and Northern soldiers soon realized that they could neither easily destroy Southern armies nor capture fortified positions. By early 1862, commanders fully understood the lethal implications of such firepower, at a time when Northern political leaders came to embrace an expansive war to be waged against the South's institutions. Northern political leaders and commanders sought not only to reduce Confederate forces in campaigns of attrition, but also to deplete the South's ability to wage war by liberating slaves, destroying the region's farms and factories, and most significantly, breaking the spirit of the Southern people.
Veterans of the 7th Illinois Infantry all wore frock coats to pose for this picture, except for the sergeant on the far left. They are all armed with formidable Henry repeating rifles, the forerunner of the Winchester and it's a rarity to find Civil War infantrymen so well equipped. It could be that the soldiers privately purchased the weapons they so proudly hold. Peter Newark's Military Pictures.
Rifle Division Rifle Brigades (3) Rifle Regiments (3) _SaPPer Supply Artillery Rifle Regiments (3) _SaPPer Supply Artillery Rifle Battalions (3) Rifle MG Platoon Platoons (3) Rifle MG Platoon Platoons (3) divisions were far too cumbersome, and changes were introduced up to mid-1919. As a result, the cavalry divizions (half-regiments) that were part of rifle divisions were amalgamated to become a cavalry regiment, the number of batteries was reduced to five, and divisions were officially allowed to have 35 per cent fewer commanders and men than the official establishment. But even these reductions did not reflect the true state of affairs rifle divisions rarely numbered more than 10-15,000 men (and sometimes as few as 3-4,000), 50-150 machine-guns and 18-46 artillery pieces. It was therefore common for a division to have only two rifle brigades instead of three. Rifle brigade (Brigada) The Prikaz of 13 November 1918 envisaged a brigade of three rifle regiments, one artillery battalion...
The balloon rose, and the firing was soon directed at this air target, shot after shot, shells exploding way up, and occasionally the sharp crack of a rifle would be heard when our sharpshooters took a chance shot and it kept up for half a day. No damage was done, except slaughter of five old trees and great holes in the ground where the solid shot struck.
House of Representatives, Davis resigned to join the army fighting the Mexican War. The United States fought Mexico to gain territory that eventually formed parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and California. As colonel of the First Mississippi Rifles, Davis proved himself to be a good military leader who maintained his cool under fire. His performance earned the respect of his former father-in-law, Zachary Taylor, and several other important military men. By the time a foot wound forced him to leave his command, he had become a well-known war hero.
Charge after charge is made on our artillery, with a demoniac will to take it, if it costs them half their army. Down it mows their charging ranks, till they lie in heaps and rows, from behind which our men fight as securely as if in rifle pits The slaughter is terrible, and to add to the carnage, our gunboats are throwing their murderous missiles with furious effect into the ranks of our enemy.
Sword bayonets, copies of weapons made popular by foreign troops, were carried by some Northern and Southern regiments. While they looked frightening when attached to the end of a rifle, they were expensive to make and awkward to carry. Bayonets shaped like spikes replaced them.
General Josiah Gorgas was one of the Confederacy's most valuable officers during the American Civil War. Born in the North, he sided with the South at the war's outset. For the next four years, he supervised the Southern effort to provide its soldiers with the weapons and ammunition that they needed in the conflict. He faced many obstacles during this period, from shortages of raw materials to the huge Union naval blockade of Confederate ports. Despite these difficulties, however, Gorgas did a remarkable job of producing and delivering weaponry to rebel (Confederate) troops during the Civil War. In numerous cases, rebel armies continued to receive needed rifles and ammunition long after their supplies of food and other materials had evaporated.
After leaving West Point, Gorgas entered the U.S. Army's Ordnance Corps (ordnance is another term for weaponry). The Ordnance Corps was responsible for designing, acquiring, maintaining, and distributing weapons and ammunition to the military. Since Gorgas was knowledgeable about rifle design, gunpowder manufacturing, and other aspects of ordnance, he thought that he would receive promotions fairly quickly. As time passed, however, he became impatient with the progress of his career. In 1845, he even sent a letter to Secretary of State James Buchanan (1791-1868) in which he demanded a promotion. Gorgas's letter angered his superiors and nearly resulted in his dismissal from the service.
The Confederate cavalry continued to dominate Union cavalry units through the beginning of 1863. Gradually, however, the performance of Northern cavalrymen improved. Historians trace this change to several factors. First, the long months of hard training that Union cavalry endured finally began to pay off, as soldiers learned to become good riders. Union cavalry forces also benefitted from improved military leadership. During the first two years of the war, cavalry were often used poorly by the Union Army. But when soldiers like General Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) and General William T. Sherman took control of the Northern war effort, they used Union cavalry much more effectively. Finally, the Union Army began outfitting several cavalry units with seven-shot repeating rifles (rifles that could be shot seven times before a soldier had to stop shooting to re load) that were better than the guns used by rebel soldiers. These repeating rifles greatly increased the effectiveness of Union...
Came crashing into the rigging of the crowded steamer, endangering the lives of the Chilian passengers aboard. The Ariels flag was struck, and moments later the Confederate boarding party, led by Lt Richard F.Armstrong, CSN, climbed aboard. Garland ignominiously surrendered the weapons of his command, which consisted of over 200 new Enfield rifles with accoutrements, 2,000 rounds of ammunition, plus the officers' sidearms. The whole battalion was required to sign a parole, agreeing not to take up arms against the Confederacy again until formally exchanged. The Marine detachment aboard the USS Kearsarge, armed with M1855 Harper's Ferry .58 caliber rifle muskets. (National Archives 127-N-515390) The Marine detachment aboard the USS Kearsarge, armed with M1855 Harper's Ferry .58 caliber rifle muskets. (National Archives 127-N-515390)
Confederate dead of Jubal Early's command lie in the rifle pit at the base of Marye's Heights (below). After a long and bloody engagement, Gen. Sedgwick and his three Federal divisions took the Heights with a bayonet charge, thereby diverting Confederate attention from the beleaguered Hooker.
A sergeant of the US Sharpshooters, in his unique green coat and trousers, with his special issue knapsack, cartridge box, and Sharps rifle. The first uniforms had a trim that was so dark that it was almost impossible to pick it out from the rest of the coat. Since the Quartermaster Department did not have any green cloth on hand initially, the first uniforms were made by dyeing dark blue dress coats dark green, the resulting clothing being so dark as to be almost black. Caps were made from a different cloth than coats, and the manufacturer used yellow cloth, already on hand, dyed green for the first caps. Eventually the army's Philadelphia Depot received wool dyed, fast color green kersey from Elk Mills, near Newark. Delaware, for the unique first issue Tilson coat (2) and trousers. The sharpshooter would carry his cartridges in two tins within a leather cartridge box (1a) which was worn on the waist belt (1b). Also shown is the hair-covered cowskin knapsack (3) this was lined with...
The Choctaw had a massive casemate forward, containing three 9-inch smoothbores and one 100-pound rifle. Just forward of the wheels was another casemate containing two 24-pound howitzers pointing forward. These were intended to command the deck aft of the casemate in case of boarding. There also were two 30-pounder Parrott rifles pointing aft. The Lafayette was similar except that the forward casemate was carried all the way aft to the wheels, with two 11-inch bow guns pointing forward and four 9-inch guns in broadside, with two 100-pound rifles pointing aft. The Lafayette s casemate was quite rounded, forming almost a half dome on the side facing the bow. The armor consisted of 1 inch of iron over 1 inch of guttapercha, or India rubber. Great things were expected from this construction the shot was supposed to bounce off. In actual practice, however, the gutta-percha soon rotted and was worse than useless.
During the first year of the Civil War, Stuart became known to friend and enemy alike as one of the South's top cavalry commanders. Most of the cavalrymen under his command had grown up in rural areas, where they had learned to ride horses and shoot rifles at an early age. But few of them had any military training or background, so Stuart spent a great deal of time training them to operate together as a unit. I regard it as a foregone unavoidable conclusion that we should ultimately whip the Yankees, Stuart stated around this time. We are bound to believe that anyhow, but the war is going to be a long and terrible one first. We've only just begun it and very few of us will see the end. All I ask of fate is that I may be killed leading a cavalry charge.
Poor, old equipment, including rifles from the Spanish-American War of 1898, and pre-1914 bayonets, was common at the start. Food supplies were at first haphazard, then gradually regularised for both Nationalist and Republican troops, but there is no doubt that, as the war continued, the Nationalist armies
The second sea action was probably the boat expedition under Lt A.F.Warley, CSN, of the ironclad CSS Chicora, that captured and destroyed the Federal observation post in the marshes at Schooner Creek, between James and Morris Islands, during the night of August 4. Warley commanded two boats manned by Marines and sailors from the Chicora and Palmetto State, and was joined by several others carrying 30 men from the St Mathews Rifles, Co F, 25th South Carolina Volunteers, under Capt Martin A.Sellers. The infantry landed as skirmishers wading knee deep through the marsh, they soon made contact with the enemy, who took to their boats and made their escape. A Federal barge carrying 11 men from the 100th New York was intercepted and captured by Warley's sailors and Marines after a violent struggle. The third engagement was the night attack on Fort Sumter on September 8-9, during which Doak's Marine Guard was transferred to the Chicora and fired into the Federal assault boats.
On 3 June, weary of being blocked at every turn and always inclined toward brutally direct action, Grant simply sent forward tens of thousands of men right into that formidable warren of defenses, and into the muzzles of rifles wielded by toughened veterans. The young Northerners obliged to
By this time two more ironclads of the same class as the Richmond had been built the Virginia IIand the Fredericksburg. These three together constituted the most powerful naval force the Confederate Navy ever assembled and sent into action. Each one was 160 feet long, of 16foot draft, carried 4 to 6 inches of armor and 4 Brooke rifles. However, they had only 20 miles of the James River above City Point in which to operate. Union General Butler's forces had completely blocked the river at Trent's Reach, above City Point, by sinking hulks and planting mine fields. This was done to the intense disgust of the United States Navy which had a force of monitors in the river - the Tecumseh, the Canonicus, the Saugus, and the Onondaga, plus the USS Atlanta, captured off Savannah the previous year from the Confederates.
Another part of the drawing of Berdan's men firing on Confederate works at Yorktown shows how muzzle-loading rifled muskets had to be loaded when the user was prone. Taking the eye off the target caused problems in relocating the target quickly under fire. Id Mahone's Brigade orders were issued to each regiment to create a company consisting of two commissioned officers, two sergeants, two corporals, 30 privates, and two men assigned to Ambulance Corps duty. One of these officers recalled, The officers and men were to be detailed from their regular companies for this permanent organization, and to be selected with a view of their special fitness for such service, the qualifications being that the men should be veterans of established reputation for faithful and reliable dependence while in action capable of enduring the extra hardships expected to be entailed, and also a proper use of the rifle the officers to be of experience and ability, and having the implicit confidence of their...
Its membership came from the cream of New York City society and for any young man serving with the 7th Regiment was distinctly a social plus. Members of the 7th served for seven years, drilled every month and paid for their own equipment and uniforms, which, because of their color, resulted in the regiments nickname of The Old Graybacks. Their short shell jackets and kepis were light gray with black trim, while their other equipment was either black oilcloth or canvas. They also carried with them a distinctive red blanket and were armed with a Model 1855 rifle-musket. In the crisis after Fort Sumter, the 7th quickly volunteered to go to the relief of Washington and was one of the first units to reach the capital in April 1861. They remained there until late May, when the immediate crisis abated, nd they returned to New York.
1 View of the muzzle of the Vandenburgh Volley Gun, showing its multiple barrels. In this particular example, the eighty-five rifled barrels are of .50 caliber mported English ordnance was among the finest in the Confederate arsenal, with those from Armstrong and Whitworth being considered to be the most modern types, having exceptional range and accuracy. This large garrison piece, officially designated an Armstrong 8-inch Iron Rifle, was made in 1864 in England and shipped to the Confederacy, its transport managing to evade the U.S. Navy's blockade. With a caliber of 8 inches (203mm), the weapon itself weighed 15,7371b (7.87 US tons 7,138kg)), which did not include the wheeled barbette carriage, which was designed to provide easyl traverse and a controlled recoil whenl the rifle was fired. Captured trophies such as this large Armstrong rifle may be seen at West Point. The Washington Navy Yard, and Forts Sumter and Moultrie at Charleston, SC., also have captured English ordnance. 1...
Skullcap, short jacket and baggy pants tucked into white leggings. Armed with 1861 Springfield rifles and baronets, they lent color to their army, though how colorful they were by 1863 is open to debate and hard wear and a uniform that looked as if it were made for Rebel target practice may have toned it down.
By the time of Gettysburg, arms in the Union Army had become more standardised. There was still an odd mixture of domestic and imported weapons, but many soldiers were armed with a Springfield rifle musket like the one illustrated here. Bayonets played their part in combat throughout the Civil War, most memorably during the charge by the 20th Maine at Gettysburg. Painting by Chris Collingwood.
1 British Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle-musket 2 Belgian Pattern 1842 Short rifle 3 British Pattern 1853 Enfield Short rifle 5 Kerr's Patent Rifle, British 6 British Brunswick Rifle 7 Bayonet for Brunswick Rifle 9 Cartridge box for British Pattern 1853 rifle-musket and short rifle 10 British Whitworth Patent Rifle with telescopic sight
Of the better clothed western outfits, and at the beginning of the war sported gray frock coats and trousers, trimmed with blue, and gray kepis with stars and regimental numerals on the crown. Armed with Enfield rifles, the 1st Texas saw heavy service in the Army of Northern Virginia with John Bell Hood's Texas Brigade, from Seven Pines in May 1862 to the end at Appomattox. Consequently, clothing deteriorated with scant reissues, so that by the finish, uniforms, as such, had ceased to mean anything and the men simply dressed themselves in whatever came to hand.
On the eve of the Civil War, the cavalry arm of the Union forces, like the infantry, was woefully understrength. T here were only five regiments of regular cavalry and they were out protecting settlers on the plains. The 1st Regiment of dragoons had been recruited in 1836 while the 2nd regiment had originally been raised as a mounted rifle regiment in 1844. The 1st and 2nd Cavalry, the newest of these regiments, had been raised in 1855. A third cavalry regiment was raised in June 1861 and later all the regular mounted units were redesignated as the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th cavalry regiments in order of seniority.
The novel gun with its special carriage is seen from both sides. (Library of Congress) A 6-pdr, Wiard rifle. The novel gun with its special carriage is seen from both sides. (Library of Congress) A detail of the unique carriage used on the Wiard rifle. Carriages could be nestled into each other on railroad flatcars, making it possible to transport more of these weapons on each car than a standard cannon on its carriage. (George Lomas Collection) 6-pdr, muzzle-loading rifled gun and a 12-pdr. howitzer that, complete with the unii ut' carriage lie also designed, weighed only 1,850 poniids. Beyond that, however, a charge of only 1 oz. of cannon powder would, at an elevation of 35 degrees, throw a ft-lb. shot 800 yards down range. A 2 oz. charge had a range of 1,200 yards, while with a full charge, a shot would travel four miles. It would be satisfying to report that such technologically superior weapons rapidly became the U.S. Army standard. They did not. In all,...
With an army which quickly rose to over 2 million men, and only a number of small local arsenals and arms factories, the Nationalist army faced a constant problem in arming its troops. By the early 1930s a bewildering array of rifles and machine guns from all over the industrial world had been imported at one time or other by the Chinese. With no central policy on arms purchasing, the various military regions and the virtual warlords who commanded them imported at whim for their own troops. This chronic lack of standardization was only partly addressed by the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War. By 1937 the predominant rifle of the Chinese armies was the 7.92mm German Mauser 98k which had been recommended by their German advisers in the early 1930s. The Mauser, imported in large numbers and soon under production in Chinese arsenals, was commonly known as the 'Chiang Kai-shek' rifle. Other rifles based on the Mauser design were also imported from Belgium and Czechoslovakia, as the FN24...
The green forage caps and uniforms of Hiram Berdan's two regiments of sharpshooters made them unique in the Union forces during the American Civil War. They were elite regiments and the selection process to join as described by Lieutenant Colonel William M. Ripley in his book Vermont Riflemen in the War for the Union, was a tough one 'it was required that a recruit should possess a good moral character, a sound physical development and in other respects come within the usual requirements of the army regulations. It was required of them that before enlistment they should justify their claim to be called sharp shooters by such a public exhibition of their skill as should fairly entitle them to the name and warrant a reasonable expectation of usefulness in the Marines carried unusual knapsacks which had two carrying straps, an adjustable breast strap and was marked 'USM' on the back. Marines were originally armed with 1855 rifle muskets and officers carried infantry officers' sabres....
Although no detailed study of Confederate military purchases has been published, they had a significant effect on the Confederate war effort. During the last six months of 1864 alone, blockade runners entering Carolinian ports succeeded in bringing in some 50,000 rifles, 43 pieces of artillery, enough lead and saltpeter to make 10 million rounds of small-arms ammunition, and enough shoes, uniforms and blankets to clothe the entire Army of Northern Virginia. In addition some 1.5 million pounds of meat were imported, ensuring that Robert
39 a) Private, 26th Texas Cavalry (Debray's Mounted Rifleman). The 1st Texas Cavalry (also known as the Texas Mounted Rifles or Partisan Rangers), though uniformed in a basically-regulation style, had black facings on the shell-jackets and the unusual cuff-flaps as in many other Texan units, the 'Lone Star' device was much in evidence. The ist Texas served in Fitzburgh Lee's Brigade it should not be confused with the other Partisan Rangers (5th North Carolina Cavalry), or with Companies 'F' and 'H' of the 2nd Texas Cavalry, both known as the Texas Mounted Riflemen. 39. C.S.A. a) Private, 26th Texas Cavalry (Debray's Mounted Riflemen). Xavier Blanchard Debray, a graduate of the French military academy of St Cyr, was in the French diplomatic service until his emigration to Texas in 1852. A newspaper publisher in San Antonio before the war, he served as Governor's A.D.C. until commissioned to raise a regiment in Bexar County, with himself as Colonel. The 26th Texas Cavalry, also known as...
Federal ordnance facilities had the capability to produce metallic cartridges, a tremendous advantage when coupled with breech-loading rifles and carbines. Yet even the Federal forces had such a wide variety of calibers of small arms ammunition ranging from .31 to .72, all of which were considered standard, that they created producing a logistician's nightmare. Shown here are just a few of the wide range of proprietary brands used for carbines and revolvers. 12 .44 caliber (11.2mm) metal cartridge for Henry repeating rifle
June 1861 from an explosive mixture of the sons of planters, soldiers of fortune, and the riff-raff of the New Orleans back streets and shanties. The battalion won its nickname of tigers for its unmanageable behavior, so villainous, wrote one officer, that every commander desired to be rid of it. Yet their battle record was excellent and during actions such as First Manassas they suffered heavy losses and the battalion had to be disbanded in August 1862 after Wheat's own death at Gaines' Mill in June. The man had held the unit together and without him it collapsed. Wheat's Tigers were easily recognized by their colorful zouave costume of blue and scarlet, and their Model 1841 rifles.
By 11 a.m. the conflagration fire was terrible and disastrous. One fifth of the fort was on fire, and the wind drove the smoke in dense masses into the angle where we had all taken refuge. It seemed impossible to escape suffocation. Some lay down close to the ground, with handkerchiefs over their mouths, and others posted themselves near the embrasures small openings in a wall through which to fire rifles , where the smoke was somewhat lessened by the draught of air. Every one suffered severely. . . .
The new Zouave uniform was particularly welcome to the men of the 155th Pennsylvania. W hen they were mustered into service in 1862, they had been issued ill-fitting long blue coats and armed with unreliable Belgian rifles. The new Zouave uniforms, issued in January 1864, helped Tiger Rifles, Company 15, Ist Special Battalion Louisiana Infantry, Dull Run. 1861 1 Corporal 2 3 Privates
Perhaps the most responsible task to befall a naval officer was the oversight of a gun and its crew. Many different types of gun entered service with the U.S. Navy, but the larger rifles and smoothbores such as this Dahlgren 11-inch were the most likely to be found aboard sea-going sloops and cruisers. the fastening buckle with its embossed CS motif British Wilson breechloading naval rifle (note crown), complete with ramrod in stowed position
Many of the New York regiments were organised on a 'national' basis, companies being composed of men of the same national origin - for example, part of the 36th New York was known as The British Volunteers. Most famous was the 39th New York, known as The Garibaldi Guard or the 1st Foreign Rifles.
Both the Union and the Confederate militaries organized their armies into three major combat units. The largest and most important of these units was the infantry. The infantry consisted of soldiers who were trained to fight on foot. Most men who fought in the Civil War fit under this category. The Union's larger population and its superior ability to produce rifles, boots, and other gear used by infantry soldiers gave it a big advantage over the Confederate infantry during the war. Much of the Confederacy's advantage in cavalry could be traced to factors in Southern culture and society. Many Southern boys grew up in rural areas, where they were encouraged to develop their riding skills. After all, Southerners often had to travel great distances on horseback over land that featured rough or nonexistent roads in order to reach neighboring towns and plantations. In addition, many Southern families relied on hunting for food. Boys who grew up in such families learned to shoot rifles and...
Fashion aside, what made the greatest impression was the small arsenal carried by Bushwhackers. Each armed himself with revolvers carried on a gunbelt, in pockets and saddle holsters some carried as many as six, and their instant firepower against soldiers carrying single-shot, muzzle-loading rifle-muskets gave them a considerable edge. The favorite pistol was the Colt, especially the lighter .36cal Colt Navy, which was considered better for firing from horseback. A Bowie knife or even a tomahawk would be carried for hand-to-hand fighting. The favorite longarm was the breech-loading .52cal Sharps rifle, both for its accuracy and its speed in reloading a trained marksman could fire this rifle up to ten times a minute. It had a maximum range of 800 yards and an effective range of about half that. Because the Sharps was a breech-loader, it could be reloaded while on horseback or lying down - a clumsy task with a standard muzzle-loader. A carbine version was also produced for cavalry work.
With red cuffs, collar and cap band, but after this uniform had caused confusion with similarly dressed Confederate units at First Manassas and elsewhere, the regiment switched to the regulation blue chasseur blouse, seen here worn by the sergeant. The regiment did, however, keep its distinctive 2-banded Enfield rifles and sword bayonets, and carried the regimental number on the kepi and the company letter on the beltplate. The regiment saw service between May to September 1862, and again in 1863, but after Gettysburg, the 22nd was not seen again in the field.
While the Ordnance Bureau shipped its own supplies on the Bermuda, the bulk of the cargo space belonged to Trenholm, or had been leased to other businessmen or agencies. Trenholm and others filled this space with war materials, which were duly sold to the Confederate government for a substantial profit. While the Ordnance Bureau shipped artillery pieces, Enfield rifles and cartridges, Trenholm and his associates imported shoes, blankets, cloth for uniforms, weapons, dry food stuffs, and pharmaceuticals. A month after delivering these the Bermuda cleared the Savannah River and returned to Liverpool, laden with 2,000 8 bales of cotton. By the end of 1861 British shipping companies were eager to repeat the success of Prioleau and Trenholm, and several of these formed mutual associations to cover both the costs and the potential risks involved in setting up their own blockade-running enterprises. To avoid further extortionate charges, Major Anderson decided that the Ordnance Bureau needed...
Lacking an adequate industrial base, the Confederate Ordnance Department was unable to supply weapons as sophisticated as the Sharps or Colt rifles to their sharpshooters. There were some Whitworth rifles already in service in the Confederate Army, but these were expensive and had to be imported through a blockade that was growing increasingly effective. Still, they were the weapon of choice for snipers, and, as they were essentially the same weight and size as the standard infantry rifled musket, they were easier to use and transport than the heavy target rifles that Federal snipers used. In fact, the 0.45 caliber Whitworth ammunition weighed less than the 0.577 Enfield ammunition carried by line infantrymen. The vast majority of Whitworth rifles, moreover, were made for the British Army and were therefore unavailable to the Confederate government. Instead the Confederates had to accept essentially civilian models, such as had been made for sale to British rifle volunteers. As an...
55,567 were purchased, most supplied by the Burnside Rifle Company the designer being General A. Burnside. The carbine was -54 calibre length 39J inches overall, barrel 21 inches and fired, by percussion cap, a perforated brass cartridge shaped almost like an ice-cream cone. The double trigger guard pressed together and was lowered to rotate the breech block and chamber into a vertical position to take the tapered case of the cartridge, the old cartridge being extracted by hand. Barrel was blued with lock-plate, trigger guard lever and all iron parts case hardened in mottle colours. The first two models had no forestocks.
By October 1918, the Siberian Army had grown into five corps lsd Middle Siberian Corps (1st and 2nd Siberian Rifle Divs.) 2nd Stepno Siberian Corps (3rd, 4th and 5th Siberian Rifle Divs.) 3rd Uralsky Arm Corps (7th Uralskaya Rifle Div., 2nd Czech Inf. Regt, 1st, 2nd and 3rr Orenburg Cossack Re ts) 4th East Siberian Corps and 5th Pryainursk Corps. 24 December 1st Middle Siberian Corps (1st and 2nd Siberian Rifle Divs.) and 3rd Stepnoy Siberian Corps (3rd Irkutsk Siberian Rifle Div., 7th Uralskaya Rifle Div., 4th and 7th Stepnaya Siberian Rifle Divs., Votkinskaya Div. and Krasnoufimskaya Brigade). The army was broken into three corps on 4 March 1919 1st Middle Siberian Corps (1st and 2nd Siberian Rifle Divs., Permskaya Div., Shock (Udarnaya) Bde) 3rd Stepnoy Siberian Corps (4th and 7th Stepnaya Siberian Rifle Divs., Shock Bde) and Composite Corps (3rd Irkutskaya Siberian Rifle Div., 15th Omskaya Siberian Rifle Div., Votkinskaya Div. and Krasnoufimskaya Brigade).
Allied landings in Siberia and North Russia which occurred that spring and summer, the Left SRs rose in revolt against the Bolsheviks in Moscow and at Yaroslavl in July, and after days of street fighting were slaughtered by the Cheka and the elite Latvian Rifles. Survivors of the SR Party in general who had not accommodated themselves to the Bolsheviks by the end of the civil war were sentenced to death in 1922. Equally important in their first year, they had won the support of three key military forces that would allow them to dominate any one opponent In a given time and place. These were the armed sailors of the Baltic Fleet, the elite Latvian Rifle Division and the dedicated 'proletarian' workers who made up the majority of the paramilitary Red Guard.
1 The four monitors of the Miantonomoh Class deteriorated rapidly after the end of the Civil War. In 1874 The Secretary of the Navy. George Robeson, ordered 'extensive repairs' to be carried out on these ships. New ship construction funds were not being supplied by Congress so under the guise of 'repairs', four completely new ships were built, renamed the Amphitrite Class. A national scandal resulted when this ruse was discovered, which contributed to the fact that these ships (plus the monitor Puritan which had been 'rebuilt' under the same ruse) did not start commissioning until 1891. The Amphitrites carried four Win breech loading rifles and several 4in and 3pdr guns Armour varied from 7 to 11-5 inches. They displaced 3990 tons and averaged a maximum speed of 12kts. Ships of this class were Amphitrite (BM-2). Monadnock (BM-3). Terror (BM-4) and Miantonomoh (BM-5). 2 The USS Puritan (BM-1). another of Robeson's 'rebuilds . was one of a kind. Commissioned in 1896 she carried four 12m...
Armament One Xl-inch smoothbore, except Cohoes, Shawnee, Squando, Wassuc two Xl-inch smoothbores Tunxis one Xl-inch smoothbore, one 150-pdr rifle Casco, Napa, Naubuc one Xl-inch smoothbore, one spar torpedo Chimo, one 150-pdr rifle, one spar torpedo Modoc, one spar torpedo was launched in April and commissioned in May 1 862, while the Tennessee was never completed and burned on the stocks to prevent capture when Memphis fell on June 6, 1862. Measuring 175 feet in length, with a 35 foot beam and 11-foot 6-inch draft, the ArkansashaA sloping casemated sides like the Virginia and was also armored with railroad iron placed over wood and compressed cotton. Under command of Lieutenant Isaac Newton Brown, she was towed to Yazoo City in an incomplete state with the capture of Memphis, and elements of the Confederate Army were enlisted to complete her construction. After five weeks she had been fully outfitted, except for the curved armor intended to surround her stern and pilothouse, and...
The 8th Wisconsin apparently largely retained the frock-coat with the ubiquitous battered hat. The regiment was known as 'The Eagle Regiment' from their custom of taking the regimental mascot - an eagle - into battle with them, sitting on a specially-constructed perch. The eagle, named 'Old Abe' after President Lincoln, achieved fame by becoming the subject of a popular song ('Old Abe the Battle Eagle') by J. Bates and T. Martin Towne. After the war, the eagle passed into honourable retirement, maintained at state expense in Milwaukee. The companies of the 8th retained the titles of the small companies from which the regiment had been formed Company 'A' Wanapaca Union Rifles, 'B' Sheboygan County Independents, 'C' Eau Claire Eagles, 'D' Fox Lake Volunteer Rifles, 'E' Rough and Ready Guards, *F' Crawford County Volunteers, 'G' Janesville Fire Zouaves, 'H' Sugar River Rifles, 'I' La Crosse County Rifles, 'K' Racine County Volunteers.
(although this is the same as the North Carolinans on an earlier page). Their headgear, of course, reflects more what was readily available than what was prescribed or issued, from the slouch hat on the kneeling man in front, to the modified top hat or pre-war Hardee hat on the sergeant. Naturally j their hats bear the Lone Star of Texas I and some may carry it on theirl beltplates, as well. Their hallmark in I battle, however, was the power of their Pattern 1853 Enfield rifles, and their blood-curdling Rebel yells.
Pistols were carried in holsters on the right hip, while Dahlgren knife-bayonets, battleaxes or cutlasses were carried 011 the left hip. The pistols were generally the Model 1842 smoothbore, single-shot percussion model, or a Colt 'Army' or 'Navy' revolver. Eongarms included the Whitney Model 1861 Navy Rifle, a 0.69 cal., o-in.-long weapon with a brass-hilted, 22-in. sabre-bayonet. The Navy also issued the Sharps & Hankins Model 1862 breech-loading carbine, and a Model 1861 breech-loading rifle. Roth were 0.52 cal., and used a rimfire cartridge.
Muzzle of the first 3-inoh Ordnance Rifle over produced. This particular weapon was captured at Gettysburg. George Lomas Collection) Muzzle of the first 3-inoh Ordnance Rifle over produced. This particular weapon was captured at Gettysburg. George Lomas Collection) I he smoothbore howitzer was designed as a lightweight gun suitable for use with canister or shell at short ranges, or at a higher trajectory than regular guns ii was therefore able to hit targets in greater defilade than regular guns. The Model 184 12-pdr. howitzer, with its bronze 65 in.-long tube thai weighed 788 lb., fired an 8.9 lb. shell 1.072 yards at five degrees elevation with a one-pound charge of powder. The weapon was not popular with artillerymen who were forced to engage in counter-battery fire against superior Napoleons, 3-in. rifles, and Patron guns. Another view of the 3-in. Ordnance rifle. (Gettysburg Battlefield National Park) Another view of the 3-in. Ordnance rifle. (Gettysburg Battlefield National Park)
Some had head coverings that were the skins from the heads of buffalo, bear, panthers, cougars, calves, etc., and quite a number wore the horns taken off with the hide of a buffalo, and others wore 110 head covering, only a single feather like it might be plucked from the tail of a turkey, eagle, buzzard, or anything else that the wearer might fancy, I noticed one old warrior on foot who carried a long full stock rifle, he wore leggings and mockasins sic in addition to his breech clout and a feather about four feet long that was taken from the tail of a peafowl was his complete wardrobe.
Commanded a rifle company and then became OC of a sniping school. By 1918 what was left of 7 RDF along with A Major Emmet Dalton MC redeployed to the Western Front. Speculation that he once served on the staff of Sir 1 lenry Wilson is unfounded, as is the unsubstantiated innuendo that he was a British spy and shot Collins.
Guerrillas discovered that trains made easy targets robbing them denied supplies to the enemy and could earn the guerrillas a handsome profit. Union commanders soon recognized the need to provide armor plating for locomotives, and to attach armored artillery cars front and rear sometimes these were supplemented with rifle-cars - boxcars roughly protected by inner walls of railroad ties, loopholed for infantry escorts. Cars such as this were proof against small-arms fire but not against artillery, and the locomotive boiler and cab were always vulnerable. Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper) On that date, Bloody Bill Anderson raided the little town of Centralia, Missouri, with 30 men before rendezvousing with the remainder of his approximately 250-strong force and moving southeast. At 4pm, Union Major A.V.E. Johnston led 158 mounted riflemen of the 39th Missouri Infantry into Centralia he had been hunting the guerrillas since the previous day, and now he unwisely divided his force,...
Equipped with a number of automatic weapons as well as rifles and a Rolls Royce armoured car, 'the Mutineer', the Republicans sat back and waited. The NA negated much of 'the Mutineer's' value by blocking the exits to the Four Courts with two disabled Lancia armoured cars. Outgunned, O'Brien planned to hold the Unfortunately this meant that his gunners were well within rifle range of the enemy and on occasion shells punched their way through the building and landed in the grounds of the British HQ just outside of possessed, instead of fighting from house to house and room to room with grenade, bayonet and rifle butt both sides settled down to sniping and inconclusive firefights.
Common with many other volunteer corps, each company preserved its identity and its own uniforms for a time in the Legion's infantry battalion for example, company names were as follows 'A' Washington Light Infantry, 'B' Watson Guards, 'C' Manning Guards, 'D' Gist Rifles, 'E' Bozeman Guards, 'F' Davis Guards, 'G' Claremont Rifles, 'H' South Carolina Zouave Volunteers.
A few US units won special notice for their rifle-skills, none more so than the 1st and 2nd Regiments of U.S. Sharpshooters, commonly known as Berdan's Sharpshooters after the colonel of the 1st Regiment. Hiram Berdan. Seeing their role as skirmishers and special marksmen, Berdan selected experienced men and armed them with the best weapons available, the Sharps Rifle in 0.52in caliber. Many also carried telescopic sights. With a view towards camouflage, Below Marksmanship could even win you celebrity. Private Truman Head, nicknamed California Joe , of Berdan's 1st United States Sharpshooters, became much lionized for his skill with the Sharps Rifle.
Parrot rifle, manned by the 1st New York Battery near Richmond in June, 1862. (Library of Congress) 2. Materiel should be restricted to the system of the U.S. Ordnance Department 3-in. rifles , of Parrott's, and of smoothbores, the latter to be exclusively the 12-poitnder, model 1857, variously called the 'gun-howitzer,' the 'light 12-pouruler,' or the 'Napoleon.' A limited number of smoothbore howitzers would be authorized for special service. A well used 20-pdr. Parrot rifle, manned by the 1st New York Battery near Richmond in June, 1862. (Library of Congress) Battery A, Ed U.S. Artillery, taken in 1662 near Fair Oaks, Virginia, was armed with 3-in. Ordnance Rifles. (Library of Congress) Battery A, Ed U.S. Artillery, taken in 1662 near Fair Oaks, Virginia, was armed with 3-in. Ordnance Rifles. (Library of Congress)
3 his brother-in-law, Col 8asil Duke, wear typical uniforms of Confederate cavalry officers black ostrich-feather hat plumes were extremely popular. They carry Colt Navy revolvers, considered by Morgan to be far more useful than cavalry carbines, though his men also carried rifle-muskets so that they could fight as infantry.
An agreement regarding the strength of the PPC was reached between Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Tse-tung in late August 1945. during the period of ostensible peace negotiations. This called for the size of the local PPC to be governed by the population of the province 110 province's PPC should exceed 15.000 men, and their armaments should be limited to pistols, rifles and automatic rifles. This agreement was of course ignored once the Civil War broke out. At the start of the conflict the PPC and other local forces amounted to about 1.5 million men. Small arms used by the Nationalists included all previously acquired Mauser 7.92mm rifle types, both imported and locally made. Additional rifles came from among the large number of Japanese 6.5mm and 7.7mm Aiisakas captured in 1945. The .30cal Springfield Ml903 and Enfield M1917 rifles had been supplied in large numbers by the USA pre-1945 but while significant numbers of Ml carbines were provided, as far as is known 110 Garand Ml rifles were...
The first figure on this plate (taken from a contemporary photograph) shows the service uniform of the 22nd New York Militia (about 1862-63) of particular note is the 1855 pattern rifle with its long sword-bayonet. The 'Bucktails' (13th Reserves) was also known as the 1st Pennsylvania Rifles or the Kane Rifle Regiment, recruited principally from lumbermen who originally supplied their own rifles and who were generally excellent marksmen. The regiment was later armed with Sharps Rifles, and later still Spencers. Serving in the Peninsula, the Shenandoah Valley, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, the Wilderness and Spotsylvania, the regiment was also present in the last action fought by the Pennsylvania Reserves, Bethesda Church (1 June 1864), being mustered out ten days later, with a record of great distinction. The various companies comprising the regiment were named as follows 'A' Anderson Life Guards, 'B' Morgan Rifles, 'C' Cameron County Riflemen, 'D' Raftsmen's Guards tor Warren...
Was launched on May 6, 1862, and commissioned during the following July. Armed with one 7in. Brooke rifle, two 6.4in. Brooke rifles, one lOin. smoothbore, and a spar torpedo, the Richmond was assigned to the James River Squadron in defense of the Confederate capital. She took part in engagements at Dutch Gap on August 13, Fort Harrison on September 29-31, and Chapin's Bluff, October 22, 1864. Attacked while aground at Trent's Reach on January 23 24, 1865, she was scuttled to prevent capture prior to the fall of Richmond on April 3, 1865. The CSS Chicora was built in Charleston, South Carolina, at the James Eason Shipyard and launched on August 23, 1862. Armed with four 6in. rifles and two 9in. smoothbores, she attacked the blockading fleet on January 31, 1863, in an unsuccessful attempt to recapture the British blockade runner Princess Royal- taken by the Union fleet two days earlier with rifled guns, small arms, ammunition, and two powerful steam engines destined for new Confederate...
The figures illustrated in this plate (taken from contemporary photographs and engravings) show typical volunteer and militia uniforms worn in the early months of the Civil War by the Confederacy. One uniform is based upon a much earlier style, including a flat-topped forage cap covered with black 'waterproof' as worn during the U.S.-Mexican War, and braided shell-jacket. The rifleman wears a leather 'hunting shirt', a traditionally-American garment worn by 'backwoodsmen' and pioneers for more than a century prior to the Civil War. The rifleman is armed with a custom-built, heavy-barrelled sniper's rifle, with brass telescopic sight running the length of the barrel, and a 'set' trigger. Used in small numbers, principally by the Federals, these weapons, in the hands of trained sharp shooters, produced feats of scarcely credible accuracy.
Sharpshooters were sometimes used to gather intelligence by taking prisoners. The commander of Lane's Brigade of the Army of the Potomac, for example, was once asked. Can't you catch a Yankee tonight for General Lee Some of the enemy are moving, and he wants to know what command it is. General Lane sent for his sharpshooter battalion's commander, who took some of his men out that night towards the enemy's rifle pits. As Lane described it, the men had to crawl towards the enemv in the moonlight, but finally commander Major J.T. Wooton leaped up and shouted out, Boys, we have got them.' Away they went, at a run, in double ranks, and wheeling right and left, just as you would open the lids of a book, they came back, bringing their prisoners with them. The P1858 Enfield rifle musket was picked as the best available weapon for Confederate sharpshooters. (Author's collection) The P1858 Enfield rifle musket was picked as the best available weapon for Confederate sharpshooters. (Author's...
Left to right Rebel trumpeter in civilian coat with a neckerchief at his throat Confederate officer in greatcoat Confederate officer in normal uniform jacket Federal cavalry officer on foot with sabre in the 'hooked-up position' probably Confederate cavalryman with U.S. style stirrup covers, and again is wearing a neckerchief figure in foreground is a Rebel with a slung rifle, wooden canteen and a tin mug hanging from the saddle rear another CS officer with what could be a fatigue coat.
Morgan was born in Huntsville, Alabama on June 1, 1825, and was educated at Transylvania College in Lexington, Kentucky. He then joined the Army and saw service during the Mexican War, after which he was discharged and returned to Lexington to enter the family business. He also became active in the local militia unit, the Lexington Rifles, and on the outbreak of war he took his small unit to Bowling Green, where he offered their services to General Buckner. Morgan was soon promoted to colonel of the 2nd Kentucky Cavalry and proceeded to establish himself as
1 Strelets (Rifleman), 1st 'Blue Coat' Division of Secheviye Streltsi, Ukraine 1918 2 Rotmistra (Captain), 2nd Ulan Regt, Poland, 1919-20 3 Vistoon (Corporal), West Ukrainian Army, 1918-19 'COLOURFUL' REGIMENTS, SOUTH RUSSIA, 1919 1 Captain, 1st 'Gen. Markov' Officers' Regt 2 Poruchik (Lieutenant), 2nd 'Gen. Drozdovsky' Rifle Regt 3 Junior Sergeant, 1st 'Gen. Alexeyev' Partisan Infantry Regt 4 Private, Samursky Infantry Regt 1 Junior Officer, 3rd Rifle Regt., Detached Czechoslovak Corps, 1918 1 Junior Officer, 3rd Rifle Regt., Detached Czechoslovak Corps, 1918
Copies of a Colt Dragoon model revolver were made for the state by Tucker & Sherrard of Lancaster, who had a contract for 3,000 revolvers but only produced some 400. Dance Brothers of Galveston also produced some 300 copies of the Colt Navy revolver for the state. Although made for the Confederate government, many rifles produced at the Tyler, Texas Armory ended up in the hands of Texans.
With the advent of armored vessels, projectiles capable of penetrating or crushing such armor had to be developed. The breaking of masonry forts was also accomplished by the use of similar projectiles fired from large bore rifled guns. Many of these projectiles had specially hardened noses designed to punch through armor. Excellent examples are to be seen at West Point and the Washington Navy Yard. The result of bombardment by such projectiles can be seen at Fort Sumter, Charleston, and Fort Pulaski, Savannah, Ga. Schenkl shell for 7 inch (178mm) rifle. Note that the papier-mach6 sabot is still in place over the projections cast on to the base of the shell to fit the rifling The fuse on top of the shell also appears to be in position Federal 5.1 inch (130mm) Stafford shell for a 50-pounder (23kg) Dahlgren naval gun Federal 5 inch (127mm) Whitworth shell for an 80-pounder (36kg) Whitworth rifle this is, in effect, a sub-caliber round and far ahead of its time Stand of grape-shot for a...
He holds rather casually a Springfield rifle musket of 1861 (another model was issued two years later). The Springfield Armoury manufactured about 800,000 of these muskets, and other sources furnished almost 900,000 more the Confederates obtained some from their own arsenals and captured approximately 150,000 more.
A few days after Lee crossed into Maryland, McClellan left Washington with seventy-five thousand troops of the Army of the Potomac (which now included troops from Pope's disbanded Army of Virginia). McClellan traveled east in search of Lee, who had divided his fifty-two thousand-man army in order to attack the Federal armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now in West Virginia), located just south of Maryland near the Potomac River. Led by Stonewall Jackson, the Confederate detachment captured the armory on September 15, seizing a huge number of weapons (13,000 rifles and 73 pieces of artillery) and 12,500 prisoners in the process. After grabbing everything that they could carry from Harpers Ferry, Jackson's troops moved back into Maryland in order to rejoin the rest of Lee's army at Sharpsburg, on Antietam Creek.
Kennesaw Mountain Military Antiques, 1810 Old Highway 41 Kennesaw GA 30152 USA (fax 7704240434) offer a good range of new Civil War books and reprints including such gems as Where Bugles Called and Rifles Gleamed. Broadfoot Publishing Company 1907 Buena Vista Circle, Wilmington NC 28405 USA (phone 8005375243, fax 9106864379) has republished both the Army Official Records and the Supplement to the Official Records, indispensable books to any American Civil War enthusiast. Olde Soldier Books Inc, 18779 B North Frederick, Gaithersburg MD, 20879, USA (Phone 3019632929. Fax 301963 9556) offers a wide selection of books, autographs, letters and documents.
When full-scale civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists broke out in 1946 new uniforms were introduced on the Nationalist side. The new officer's uniform consisted of a US-style khaki peaked cap with a cap badge which had the old sun emblem surrounded by a wreath. The green-khaki service tunic had a rounded collar with new branch badges replacing the old branch colours. The new branch badges were as follows infantry - crossed rifles artillery - cannon on wheels cavalry - crossed swords staff - crossed batons signals - crossed flags quartermasters -wheel tank troops - tank engineers - castle and military police - crossed pistols.
TOP Nationalist soldiers in trenches near Shanghai in 1932 prepare to fight off the Japanese invaders. All wear the peaked cap worn by northern Nationalist troops and have blanket rolls over their shoulders. Their rifles are the Hanyang 88 copy of the German Mauser 88, produced in China in large numbers. (Fusiliers' Museum, Lancashire) ABOVE More Nationalist troops shoot from behind a barricade in the city of Shanghai in March 1932, when they desperately fought off the Japanese. These men belong to the 19th Route Army, which shocked the world by beating off the Japanese. The peaked cap with Nationalist sun emblem is again worn and the rifles are Hanyang 88s. (Fusiliers' Museum, Lancashire)
The small village of Stupni Do overlooked Vares and the road down the valley. In late October, 1993, it was defended by a Muslim Territorial Defense unit commanded by Avdo Zubaca and consisting of about fifty men with thirty rifles and a 60-mm mortar.19 When a two-hundred-man HVO unit from Kiseljak and Kakanj arrived in Vares on October 21, the local Muslim War Presidency ordered the evacuation of Stupni Do's civilian population, but most of the residents chose not to leave. The following day, a force of masked uniformed HVO troops, subsequently identified as the group recently arrived from Kiseljak and Kakanj, entered the village and assaulted the ABiH soldiers and Muslim civilians still there. Both UNPROFOR forces and ECMM monitors were unable to enter the village for three days to verify the claims of untoward events.20 On October 27, elements of the UNPROFOR Nordic Battalion (NORDBAT) finally obtained access to Stupni Do and found twenty bodies by the end of day. The ABiH...
Roanoke and Minnesota The masts of the Cumberland were protruding above the water. The Congress presented a terrible scene of carnage. A small boat was sent from the Virginia to the Congress, in itself a miracle given the damage to the deck fittings of the ironclad. Next, the Beaufort arrived to take the frigate's surviving officers off as prisoners, then burn the enemy ship. She was followed by the Confederate tug Raleigh, The two tugs had scarcely come alongside the Congress when they came under heavy fire from the shore. General Mansfield refused to support the frigate's peaceable surrender, and fired his batteries, supported by the rifle fire of two infantry companies. He ordered a subordinate to send down marksmen and do not permit them to board the Congress. His actions were effectively a death warrant for the wounded sailors on board the frigate. Lieutenant Parker on the Beaufort recalled that bullets were hitting his tug like hail. He withdrew to join two other Confederate...
Several of the incidents in the Travnik area appear to have involved mu-jahideen or members of the extremist Muslim Armed Forces. On April 2, all HVO checkpoints in Zenica, Travnik, Vitez, and Busovaca were reinforced following an announcement by mujahideen in Zenica that they would attack the HVO military prison in Busovaca unless three MOS members were released. The same day, HVO military police reported that MOS members and mujahideen in Travnik were engaged in provocative and threatening behavior that included the singing of Muslim songs disparaging the Croat people and HVO military units. The Vitez civilian police arrested three armed mujahideen at a checkpoint on April 7, and the following day in Zenica, a van loaded with MOS members or mujahideen passed through the town as the occupants stuck their automatic rifles out the windows and threatened passersby. On April 9, HVO military police in Novi Travnik received telephone calls from someone who stated Do you know that there...
June 1861 from an explosive mixture of the sons of planters, soldiers of fortune, and the riff-raff of the New Orleans back streets and shanties. The battalion won its nickname of tigers for its unmanageable behavior, so villainous, wrote one officer, that every commander desired to be rid of it. Yet their battle record was excellent and during actions such as First Manassas they suffered heavy losses and the battalion had to be disbanded in August 1862 after Wheat's own death at Gaines' Mill in June. The man had held the unit together and without him it collapsed. Wheat's Tigers were easily recognized by their colorful zouave costume of blue and scarlet, and their Model 1841 rifles.
BELOW So-called 'government troops' search a village for bandits in 1923 a more 'rag tag' bunch would be hard to find. Most of them wear straw sandals instead of shoes and all of them wear cotton peaked caps. Notice that a few of them carry umbrellas for shelter from the sun and rain, and there are at least three different types of rifle in use in this one small unit. (Hulton Getty)
Scarcely two miles west of the Chancellor house lies the Chancellorsville museum and park, which closes at dusk. The National Park Service produces a good, free map and thumbnail history of Civil War battles in this area, entitled Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania. The museum's color slide-show puts not only Chancellorsville but its precursor, Fredericksburg, in perspective against the entire tapestry of Civil War history. The single-storey museum has enough uniforms, rifles, and personal memorabilia to bring the historical facts to life. There are tours of the immediate site roughly once an hour these fill in smaller details of history, such as how Stoneman was an unusual choice for Hooker's cavalry commander because he suffered from piles
Whitworth Rifles in Hurt's 2nd Hardaway Artillery. Imported through the blockade they were credited with a range of 10,000 yards at 30 degrees elevation. The most advanced pieces on the field, their complicated breech mechanisms often required repair and were less manoeuvrable than other rifled pieces. Lieutenant William E. Zimmerman (65 troops present for duty equipped) 4 3-inch rifled guns Captain Edward Avenmore Marye (71 troops present for duty equipped) 2 3-inch rifled guns 2 12-pounder Napoleon guns Captain Thomas Alexander Brander (65 troops present for duty equipped) 2 10-pounder Parrott rifled guns 2 12-pounder Napoleon guns The 5th Alabama Battalion dashed across the bridge and deployed in skirmish order. Some sixty skirmishers from the 13th Alabama joined them. A 3-inch rifle belonging to the Fredericksburg Battery unlimbered on a nearby hill and began firing.
After entering the Shenandoah Valley, Dance's Battalion participated in the combats around Winchester. Its fire support assisted the infantry to capture four 20-pounder Parrott rifles along with seventeen 3-inch rifles. The Confederate gunners in the Corps Reserve exchanged their worn pieces for