English Civil War Royalists - Pictures

English Civil War Sword BaldricMarston MoorRoyal Armory Made SpainPikemen Suit Leather Gaiters
Aftermath: Marston Moor, 1644 1: Pikeman, Marquis of Newcastle's Regiment 2: Musketeer, Earl of Manchester's Regiment 3: Surgeon
Montero Caps
Musketeers' equipment 1: Musketeers 2: Hats & Montero caps 3, 4: Bandoleers & tools 5: Muskets
Montero Cap

choosc more broken country, especially if he had fewer cavalry than his opponents. Sir William Waller, in particular, was famous for this, as the Royalist Lieutenant-Colonel Walter Slingsby's comment shows: 'Indeed that Gcncrall of the Rebells was the best shifter and chooser of the ground when he was not master of the field that I ever saw, which are great abilityes in a Souldier'.

In broken or wooded country the personal fighting qualities of the soldier and his ability to use his weapons were more important than the unit drill he had been taught. For this kind of scrambling action over ditches and hedgerows, files of musketeers were drawn out from their regiments and formed into separate 'commanded' bodies, as pikemen were of little use. Contemporary commanders held the view that brave but poorly trained soldiers could be used in the open but would stand little chance against veterans in this 'hedge-fighting'. In 1648, for example, when the Scots army invaded England at the opening of the Second Civil War, Sir James Turner favoured the route through Yorkshire rather than Lancashire 'and for this reason only, that I understood Lancashire was a close country, full of ditches and hedges, which was a great advantage the English would have over our raw and undisciplined musketeers, the Parliament's army consisting of experienced and well trained sojors and excellent firemen; on the other hand Yorkshire being a more open countrey and full of heaths, where we both might make use of our horse, and come sooner to push of pike'.

The clash of major armies was only a part of the war; all over the country smaller forces contended for control of territory or strongpoints such as fortified towns or country houses, or simply conducted plundering raids. Swift marching and sudden surprise was the key to success in these small actions. To achieve this both sides commonly formed forces composed of cavalry, dragoons and 'commanded' musketeers, often providing horses for the musketeers or having them ride double with the cavalry troopers. Sir William Waller, whose liking for swift night marches earned him the name 'Night Owl', took this a stage further, and made serious but unsuccessful efforts in 1644 to mount all his infantry with the intention of using the mobility this offered to make up for inferior numbers.

George Monk, a professional soldier who served in Europe and in the Royal Army in Ireland. He was placed in the Tower of London after his capture at the Battle of Nantwich, but later served Oliver Cromwell. Monk enjoyed the close support of the army he commanded in Scotland, and his influence was the key factor in the Restoration of Charles II.

A Last Word.

George Monk had the last word in the Civil Wars since it was his support which made possible the Restoration of Charles II. It seems proper, therefore, to end with his advice: 'It is most necessary for a General in the first place to approve his Cause, and settle an opinion of right in the minds of his Officers and Souldiers: the which can be no way better done, than by the Chaplains of his Army. Also a General ought to speak to the Colonels of his Army to encourage their Officers with a desire to fight with the Enemy; and all the Officers to do the like to their Souldiers. And the better to raise the common Souldiers spirits, let their Officers tell them that their General doth promise them, if they will fight courageously with their Enemy, and do get the day that they shall have, besides the Pillage of the Field, twelve-pence apiece to drink, to refresh their spirits when the business is done. The which I am confident will make the common men fight better, than the best Oration in the world'.

English Mens Clothes With Armour 1607

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Further Reading.

There are a whole host of books on the Civil War and its military, political and social aspects. Listed below are some of the most useful military works. Bariffe, A Civil War Drill Book (Partizan Press, 1988)

C.H. Firth, Cromwell's Army (London, 1905, 1921 and 1962)

R. Hutton, The Royalist War Effort 1642-1646 (Longman, 1982)

J. Kenyon, The Civil Wars of England (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988)

J.L. Malcolm, Caesar's Due: Loyalty and King Charles 1642-1646 (Royal Historical Society, 1983) S. Peachey & A. Turton, Old Robin's Foot: the equipping and campaigns of Essex's Infantry 1642-1645 (Partizan Press, 1987)

K.A.B. Roberts, London & Liberty: Ensigns of the London Trained Bands (Partizan Press, 1987) I. Ryder, An English Armyfor Ireland (Partizan Press,

D. Stevenson, Scottish Covenanters and Irish Confederates (Ulster Historical Foundation, 1981)

P. Young and R. Holmes, The English Civil War, A Military History of the Three Civil Wars 1642-1651 (London, 1974)

A very useful forum for those with an interest in the latest developments of this period is the magazine English Civil War Notes and Queries published by Partizan Press at 26 Cliffsea Grove, Leigh-011 Sea, Essex SS9 iNQ.

The Plates

A: Peace The Artillery Garden, c.1620 This plate shows members of the Society of the Artillery Garden practising with their arms in the 'Artillery Garden' from which the name derived. The society was a voluntary association of some of the wealthier London citizens who gathered together to practise weapon-handling and drill, often under the tuition of professional soldiers. Although sometimes mocked by outsiders, the Society did provide a good grounding in these military arts, and its form of training prepared members for their traditional roles as officers of the Militia regiments of the City of London. Members of the Society took their exercises seriously,

Order Your Pikes

Three views of the position 'Order Your Pike'. The first is a close copy from Jacob de Gheyn's Exercise of Arms (1607), the second from an English manual of 1623, and the third a statuette c.i 638 from Cromwell House in Highgate. Note how closely de Gheyn's original design was followed. The statuette gives a good impression of the appearance of a pikeman during the Civil War. (Author's collection, British Library and by courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)

Three views of the position 'Order Your Pike'. The first is a close copy from Jacob de Gheyn's Exercise of Arms (1607), the second from an English manual of 1623, and the third a statuette c.i 638 from Cromwell House in Highgate. Note how closely de Gheyn's original design was followed. The statuette gives a good impression of the appearance of a pikeman during the Civil War. (Author's collection, British Library and by courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)

although as much with the intention of excelling in a social accomplishment as with any intention of military preparation. There was no formal uniform lor the Society at this time, and members wore their equipment over their civilian clothing. Their equipment conformed to statutory requirements but was often chosen more with an eye to display than the latest developments. Illustrations dating from 1642 show members carrying old-fashioned heavy muskets rather than the lighter pattern then being produced.

Ai: The Double-Armed Man

The English still felt a patriotic nostalgia for the longbow, and its general replacement with firearms had been achieved with some reluctance during Queen Elizabeth's reign. William Neade hoped to re-introduce the national weapon by his invention of a device which allowed a pikeman to attach a longbow to the centre of his pike, so enabling him to hold both in left hand while drawing the bow with his right. It remained popular amongst the voluntary associations in London, particularly for displays, and theorists such as Sir Thomas Kellie and William Barriffe recommended it. There is no evidence that it was ever practised in the field. This citizen is practising Neade's style and so wears the full equipment of a pikeman—gorget, back and

Pikemen Suit Leather Gaiters

Howy SofdierJlancCing ftiCC JhatCnofdthe Fife iuft before fiis rigfofoot.gouerning it cujai-nftj- t/himBe, fits arrrte a [ittCe BendcdpJhis fiancf a front f fieig/it of fits eyes, Being not Bonnetafrbaies toJet tfie rightfoot forward .

breast, tassets, sword and helmet—in addition to the quiver and wristguard of an archer. The trim of leather strips to the shoulders of the armour and the red plume in his helmet are a conscious imitation of the supposed military dress of the Classical past while his boots show the world that here is a man of substance who normally rides—or at least could, if he chose.

English Civil War Leather Armor

As: Pikeman

This citizen wears the full equipment of a pikeman as specified by statute, and stands in the classic 'Order Your Pike' position from the drill manual. Neither this man nor his double-armed colleague have water-proofed their armour by blackening or russeting it, preferring instead the display of polished metal. As these amateur enthusiasts were wealthy men, often fabulously so, they would riot be polishing it themselves.

Aj: Musketeer

The musketeer has laid down his equipment musket, musket-vest and matchcord—on the ground

Old Man With Musket

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beside him in the manner prescribed in the manuals. He retains his bandoleer, the heavy cross-hilted sword hung from his baldric, and wears the helmet which completes his statutory equipment. Note the expensive musket stock, elaborately inlaid with ivory, and the gold-trimmed sleeveless buff-coat.

Two views of the 'Saluting Posture' of a musketeer., one from a manual of 1623 and the other a statuette from Cromwell House, Highgate. Again, the posture is copied from de Gheyn's original design. The statuette dates from c.1638, but gives a good impression of a musketeer of the Civil War. (By courtesy of the Boards of Trustees of the British Library and the Royal Armouries)

English Civil Buff Coats

B: Recruitment; Oxford, 1643

In the early years of the war men volunteered for service under King or Parliament either through a sense of commitment to the cause or for the wages offered (but seldom paid in full) by recruiting officers. By 1644 most of the infantry of either side were raised by impressment. This plate shows a typical scene in Oxford in 1643, with an officer accompanied by a drummer and a clerk recruiting soldiers for the King's Lifeguard.

Bi: Company Clerk

The Company clerk records the name of a new recruit in the company's muster roll. This officer kept the company's records of soldiers present and payments received. Contemporary writers specified that he ought to be 'very just and honest', a sure indication that many were not. As an officer he wears his own civilian clothing with the addition of the sword a man of his status would only have worn in military service.

B2: Officer, K ing's Lifeguard of Foot With the exception of the corporals, who wore the regimental coat, and the drummers, who wore whatever the colonel or their captain chose, officers on both sides wore their own civilian clothing. The only indications of rank being a sash and the weapons carried a partizan for a commissioned officer or a halberd for a sergeant. The usual practice was to wear a sash in the 'General's colours' and this officer wears the red sash of his king's service, a feature commonly seen in William Dobson's portraits of gentlemen in the King's Oxford Army. The only other item of military equipment he wears is the gorget at his throat, as his rapier is a part of any gentleman's civilian costume.

By: Drummer, K ing's Lifeguard of Foot Each company of infantry had two drummers on the strength, and each was expected to know 'how to beat all the several points of War' as the drum was used to convey orders in battle or on the march. A drummer was expected to be a mature, intelligent man, the use of drummer boys belonging to a later century as the drum itself was heavy and one of his duties was to carry messages to the enemy and perform the duties of a spy in the proccss. The drummer's costume was at the discretion of his commander and that of this figure is based upon an

Frontispiece of a satirical pamphlet printed shortly after the Battle of Edgehill. Its text is a pornographic parody of the usual instructions for the drill postures—the first pornographic drill book. . . The antiquated dress of the Welshmen illustrated is part of the satire, and it would be wrong to assume Welsh infantry actually looked like this. (British Library)

illustration of a drummer of the Gardes Françaises, c. 1632. The coat colour, red, was that of the Lifeguard at this time, and the design on the drum itself is taken from the well-known portrait of Sir Edmund Walker, the King's Secretary at War. Note particularly the size of the drum and the 'underarm' method of beating it

C: Plunder: The Earl of Essex's Army 1642 Many soldiers on both sides took the opportunities offered by the disruption of Civil War to intimidate and plunder civilians. For the bored soldiers of the Earl of Essex's Army this was a popular pastime in the suburbs of London, and later in the counties as they marched on campaign. They had 110 authority to do anything more than search for arms, and even then only under the authority of an officer. In fact, as contemporary records show, soldiers plundered at will, showing pretended papers of authority if challenged. When queried by the local sheriff on

The true manner how her* doe exercife her <

company of Souldiers in her own Countrcy in a V warlike mariners with fome other new-f and * rperimencs , and pretty extravag;mts fitting for all Chriftian podics to caknow.

English Civil War

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The Welili-Mans PoSr^

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company of Souldiers in her own Countrcy in a V warlike mariners with fome other new-f and * rperimencs , and pretty extravag;mts fitting for all Chriftian podics to caknow.

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one occasion they simply refused to let him read the papers, and when he seized their stolen property they returned in greater numbers to recover it and then sold it in the streets. Here an elderly Catholic sits in despair as his home is stripped bare.

Ci: Musketeer, Hampden's Regiment The Ringleader waves a paper claiming it gives him authority for his activity. On enlistment in 1642 Parliament soldiers were supposed to be issued with coats, shoes, shirts, snapsacks and caps. It is not clear whether the use of the word 'caps' at this time

Civil War 1642 Man

meant anything more precise than headgear, and there is some doubt whether those mentioned in Parliament's orders of 6th August 1642 were-ever actually issued. Three styles of headgear are known to have been worn: a Montero cap,' a broad-brimmed felt hat, or a Monmouth cap. Breeches were not a general issue for soldiers in the Parliament army until their re-clothing after the debacle at Lostwithiel in 1644, and each continued to wear those he had when he enlisted, or replaced them by theft when possible. This man wears the green uniform coat of his regiment, with its yellow lining showing where the culfs are turned back, and a Montero cap. He carries his cheap cross-hilted sword on a baldric, and wears the bandoleer which contains powder and shot for the musket he has left in camp. The matchcord he uses to fire his musket is looped over the bandoleer.

C2: Musketeer, Thomas Ballard's Regiment This man wears a broad-brimmed felt hat with a political pamphlet thrust behind the hatband, and the grey coat of his regiment. His equipment is similar to that of Ci, but note the more modern pattern of sword and the different style of bandoleer. Parliament obtained equipment for

A statuette from Cromwell House of a Trained Band drummer c.1638; and a surviving example of a 17th century drum. (By courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)

A statuette from Cromwell House of a Trained Band drummer c.1638; and a surviving example of a 17th century drum. (By courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)

The Gallant She Soldier

their now regiments from a number of different sources: the arsenal at the Tower of London, the military stores of the 'Irish Adventurers' (private subscribers for forces to suppress the Irish revolt), the armouries of the London Guilds, and purchase from abroad. A variety of different styles of equipment could be seen in use by the sameregiment.

C3: Pikeman, Lord Robartes' Regiment

The simple set of armour he wears over his red regimental coat has been blackened, a common precaution against rust. He wears a knitted

'Monmouth' cap, a popular style for pikemen as it provided useful padding for the helmet worn in action.

D: Training: Royalist Musketeers The three musketeers arc each equipped in a different style. The first carries a heavy-pattern musket with the musket-rest it requires, and a bandoleer. The second has a lighter musket and has discarded his musket-rest; he carries his ammunition in a 'Powder-Bag' on his waist belt. The third carries a 'dog-lock' musket with the usual bandoleer. Regardless of the type of equipment, continuous training was required to achieve proficiency with a musket.

Di: Musketeer, Royal Army, 1642 This volunteer still wears the clothes he enlisted in, with a red hatband to show his allegiance to his king. His heavy musket is an old-fashioned model, one of many seized by the king as the county Trained Bands were disarmed to provide weapons for the King's Army. Even so, this man is fortunate to have a complete set of equipment, as Clarendon's comments on the state of the army show: 'By all those means together, the Foot, all but three or four hundred, who marched without any weapon but a Cudgel, were Arm'd with Musquets, and Bags for their Powder, and Pikes; but in the whole Body, there was not a Pikeman had a Corslet, and very few Musqueteers who had Swords'. This is an exaggeration as there would certainly have been a substantial number of sets of pikcmcn's armour in the Trained Band arsenals, but the King's Army was certainly very poorly equipped when it was first raised.

Musketeers Powder Flasks
A statuette from Cromwell House of a Trained Band lifer c.1638. Fifers do not appear in contemporary pay records but other references show they were in service, possibly paid for by their colonels personally. (By courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)
Musketeers Powder Flasks

1)2: Musketeer, King's Oxford Army, 1643 This soldier wears a 'Powder-Bag' containing paper cartridges with a flask containing priming powder suspended beneath it. These were issued as a temporary expedient to overcome a shortage of bandoleers. An order for the delivery of stores for the manufacture of these powder-bags shows that they were made of'Calfe skinns tanned and oyled'. His uniform coat, breeches and montero cap are part of the issue of 1643 provided by the entrepreneur Thomas Bushell who reclothed the Oxford infantry in suits of all-red or all-blue.

Dj: 'Firelock' Captain Sanford's Firelocks, 1643 With the agreement of a truce in Ireland, the English forces there could be released to support the king's cause in England. Captain Sanford's Company was a part of the contingent landed at Mostyn in November 1643. Hopton commented that these experienced soldiers were 'bold, hardy men, and excellantly well otlicer'd, but the common men verie mutenous and shrewdly infected with rebellious humour of England'. This soldier wears the new coat issued on his arrival in England and carries a 'dog-lock' musket, the 'firelock' which gives the company its name. This type of weapon was usually carried by artillery guards, but several independent companies in the King's Army were wholly equipped with them, examples being Sanford's and Langley's from Ireland and Prince Rupert's 'Firelocks'.

E: Tavern: Colonel Samuel Jones's Regiment, 1643 The most common relaxations of soldiers were drinking, smoking, gambling with cards or dice, and, as some said, quarrelling with one another. They also indulged in some field sports when in camp, such as those described in the ballad The Gallant She-Soldier.

' For other manly practices she gain's the love of all,

For leaping and for running or wrestling for a fall,

For cudgels or for cuffing, if that occasion were,

There's hardly one of ten men that might with her compare.'

A set of pikeman's armour: helmet, gorget, back and breast plates, and tassets. This set is too elaborately decorated for ordinary issue, and would have been made for an officer or a wealthy Trained Band soldier. (By courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)

Images Trained Band Soldiers

Detail from a portrait of Sir George Wharton, showing a rare contemporary view of Civil War infantry. Note that these musketeers have abandoned their musket rests; and the size of the drum compared with the drummer. The portrait shows these infantry in coats of several different colours. (National Army Museum)

Detail from a portrait of Sir George Wharton, showing a rare contemporary view of Civil War infantry. Note that these musketeers have abandoned their musket rests; and the size of the drum compared with the drummer. The portrait shows these infantry in coats of several different colours. (National Army Museum)

In the absence of barracks soldiers were usually quartered in private houses or barns, the owners being responsible for supplying them with food and drink. Even when provisions were paid for soldiers made poor guests, as can be seen from the comments of one involuntary host: 'My House is, and hath been full of soldiers this fortnight, such uncivil drinkers and thirsty souls that a barrel of good beer trembles at the sight of them and the whole house is nothing but a rendezvous of tobacco and spitting'. Soldiers in garrisons were usually better behaved than those in the marching armies, since they were often local men, and it was easier to obtain justice for misdemeanours. This plate shows Parliament soldiers of Colonel Samuel Jones's Regiment carousing in a tavern in Farnham, where they garrisoned the castle and town.

Ei: Fifer

The only musicians on the official establishment of an infantry regiment were the two drummers allowed for each company. It is clear from contemporary references and illustrations, however, that both fifcrs and drummers were to be found in some units. Sir James Turner's comment

'any Captain may keep a Piper [Filer] in his Company, and maintain him too, for no pay is allowed him', may explain the absence of these musicians 011 surviving muster-rolls. This man stands playing in a posture seen in several contemporary illustrations. Note the broad silver trim to his coat, and the cylindrical fife-case slung on its own shoulder belt.

E2: Musketeer Eg: Pikeman

Two soldiers from the garrison, one wearing the regimental green coat while the other has cast his aside as he concentrates on His cards. Samuel Jones's Regiment was typical of those which served in garrison but contributed companies or commanded

An example of a Civil War secret code. These were basically simple, with particular numbers representing individuals, places and articles such as men, money and munitions. Other numbers represent each letter of the alphabet. This code was used in correspondence between Lord Digby and the Parliamentarian Major-General Richard Browne.

bodies from time to time for service with the Marching Armies. These regiments kept up their strength better than most, as they were better able to recruit, and fewer of their men deserted or died of the camp sicknesses endemic in the field. 1 he rust stains seen on the coat worn by E3 show him to be a pikeman who usually wears armour.

F: Skirmish: The Westminster Trained Bands at

Basing House, 164J In order to achieve the best effect from the slow rate of fire of the matchlock musket, musketeers were formed into bodies six or eight deep. Each rank would then fire in succession in one of several precise manoeuvres. In some of these the body would stand its ground while firing, in some it would advance, and in others it would retire. This was the Dutch style most commonly used by Parliament troops at the outbreak of the Civil War. In this way well-drilled infantry could keep up a continuous fire, but the emphasis here is on 'well-drilled'—and this scene shows the unfortunate experience of the i> I w

His Lord ¡hips Cypher before mmtmei.

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Responses

  • herugar
    What is the difference between a pillaging soldier and a royal musketeer?
    7 years ago

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