Goatskin Leggings Berdan

The arms problem was resolved before mass desertion took place, and the USSS went on to serve with the Army of the Potomac in all its campaigns. Specific companies began to be mustered out at the end of their service in August 1864, and companies were consolidated thereafter. On December 31, 1864, the 1st and 2nd USSS were consolidated into one battalion. The 2nd was officially discontinued on February 20, 1865, and the remaining companies were transferred back to line regiments of their home states.

In the meantime, other units were also recruited as sharpshooter battalions. Yates's Sharpshooters was organized as a battalion of four companies in Illinois in December 1861, and another two companies were soon added. It was taken on the official rolls as»the 64th Illinois Infantry and served in the western theater, the March to the Sea and the march through the Carolinas, before being mustered out in July 1865.

The 1st Maine Sharpshooter Battalion was organized in late 1864 and sent to the siege of Petersburg, serving through Appomattox. It was transferred to the 20th Maine Infantry in June 1865.

Massachusetts authorized two companies of sharpshooters known as Andrews' Sharpshooters, which were organized in that stale in September 1861. The first company was attached to the 15th Massachusetts Infantry in July 1864, and then to the 19th Massachusetts Infantry in September 1864, by which time it consisted of two non-commissioned officers and 13 privates. The second company was attached to the 22nd Massachusetts Infantry and mustered out of service in October 1864.

The 1st Michigan Sharpshooter Regiment was organized in mid-1863 and saw service with the Army of the Potomac until it was mustered out on July 28, 1865. Many of its members were native Americans.

Birge's Regiment of Western Sharpshooters was organized in Missouri in late 1861 and was mustered into service as the 14th Missouri Infantry Regiment. It saw service in the west until November 20. 1862, when it was taken onto Illinois state rolls as the 66th Illinois Infantry Regiment.

The 1st New York Sharpshooter Battalion was organized by consolidating four independent sharpshooter companies in late 1862 and early 1863. It was sent to the Department of Virginia and then saw

14th Infantry Rilliet

One of tho most colorful characters in the USSS was nicknamed "California Joe." Here ho ciowe how ho find* cover while carrying the Sharps riflo ho brought with him from home. (Woodcut in Harper's Weekly from a photograph)

service with the Army of the Potomac through Appomattox Court House. It was mustered out of service in July 1865, save for one company that had mustered out the previous August.

Ohio recruited ten independent sharpshooter companies between 1861 and 1864. Most of these were attached to regular infantry line regiments, although several were assigned to the headquarters of the Army of the Cumberland.

Major General David Birney had a regiment recruited in eastern Pennsylvania in late 1864 to serve as his division's sharpshooters. The regiment was designated the 203rd Pennsylvania, but Birney died soon after they reached the field, before they could be used in the traditional sharpshooter manner, and they were thereafter treated as regular line infantry.

One of tho most colorful characters in the USSS was nicknamed "California Joe." Here ho ciowe how ho find* cover while carrying the Sharps riflo ho brought with him from home. (Woodcut in Harper's Weekly from a photograph)

Training

At first Berdan, who had no military experience, figured his men were such good shots that they could go immediately into action. Accordingly he sent his first companies to be armed into Virginia shortly after arriving in Washington. However, they got the worst of a small skirmish, losing two men in the process. (Captain Rudolph Aschmann, 1st USSS, wrote, "This experiment showed very clearly that courage alone docs not make a soldier and that competent elementary training is a necessary preparation for active service."

Training for the Sharpshooters was more specialized than for line infantry, which basically drilled to maneuver as ttvo lines of soldiers in combat. The average infantryman received very litde practice in firing his

Berdens Sharpshooter

Tho rogimontai color of tho usss. musket at all; indeed many only lired the rounds they had loaded their (West Point Museum collections) weapons with when they went on guard duty as they came ofT that duty.

On the other hand. Captain (^A Stevens. 1st USSS, wrote:

The time was occupied in [the unit's first| camp (of instruction] in target practice, learning the company drill and battalion movements, guard, patrol, and camp duties: and, under the instruction of Lieut. Mean, U.S.A.. lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, they were soon able to execute the most difficult regimental drills, and were probably unexcelled, therein by any regiment, particularly in skirmishing, a service they were destined to perform at the front, in all the great battles of the Army of the Potomac, up to the time of their expiration of service.

In the target practice, a matter of the greatest importance, many excellent scores were made, and under the supervision of Col. Berdan. great improvement was made in their 10 marksmanship.

The unit could call on a US Army :d by the War

Department, A System of Target Practice, which had been translated from a French Army manual. The manual called for the soldier to first aim his weapon, which was placed on a rest. An officer standing behind him could then point out any errors in his aiming methods. Each soldier was required to take his weapon apart and put it back together and to practice estimating distances. For bayonet drill thev used a Manual of Bayonet Exercises, another translation of a French Army manual, this done by George McCIellan who would soon command the Army of' the Potomac.

Since they would be used more as skirmishers than snipers, skirmish drill was one of the most important aspects of their training. Skirmish drill was covered in a 42-page section in the most common manual of the period, William Hardee's Rifle and Light Infantry Tactics.

First Sergeant Wyman White, Company F, 2nd USSS. later recalled how much his company enjoyed skirmish drill:

Falmouth Skirmish

Skirmish drill is an open order drill. Men form line in two ranks, then at the order deploy by fours, two files of lx>th ranks would take distances twenty feet apart. Then at the order deploy in line, each man on the left of the four would take distance five paces to the left of Number one in the front rank, he standing fast. Number one if the rear rank standing five paces to the left of the Number one'in the front rank. Number two in the front rank being five paces to the left of Number one in the rear rank, and Number two in the rear rank taking distance five paces to the left of Number one in the front rank. The squads of fours taking distance still further to the left and deploying to the distance of five paces apart until the whole company or regiment was in a single line five paces space between each man.

Thus deployed, three hundred fifty men would make a line about a mile long. We took our orders from the call of the bugle as no man's voice could reach the length of the line. We had calls to advance, to commence firing, cease firing, by the right flank, by the left flank, lay down, rise, halt and retreat anil finally every movement necessary to move the command.

There was a call to rally by fours which is a very pretty movement and the order to resist cavalry. Each man knew his place; Number one of the front rank stood fast, the other three faced to the right and double quick their step. Number one of the rear rank taking his place in the rear of Number one in the front rank and facing the rear. Number two of the front rank taking his place on the left of Number one of the front rank and Number two of the rear rank taking his place to the left of Number two of the rear rank. All face out with bayonet fixed; each man bracing his left

Second Lieutenant Porrin Judkins, Company Q, 1st USSS, wears the plain dark blue sack coat noted as being worn in the field in place of the green frock coat by somo regimental officers. (Bob Zinkgraf collection)

Until the men In tho USSS received weapons, they spent time In camp as best they could. (Harper's Weekly)

Bob Harper Bugle

foot and his left shoulder solid against his comrade on the opposite corner making a solid group of four. And four cool men drilled in bayonet exercise need have no fear of cavalry

There were also movements and bugle calls to rally by sections, rally by platoon, and rally by company and regiment. Our regiments generally were engaged in skirmish line all throughout the war. Of course, we were drilled in bayonet exercise and infantry drill and when the army moved in the spring our regiment was quite a well drilled command.

Private William Greene, 2nd USSS, wrote home on January 27, 1862, describing his first experience with skirmish drill:

So after we had got out into the woods (Co. B was the 7th Co.) the 2nd and 7th Company in the regiment were sent out as skirmishers to see if we could spy any rebels. Mind you we were on drill, not in the region of rebels. Wre went out a little way, deployed as skirmishers and went on at double quick time. We had not gone far before the order was given to halt just as if we had seen some of the enemy. When the order to halt is given when we are skirmishing we halt and run for the nearest tree and if there is none lay down flat on our bellies so to get out of the reach of the enemy's fire.

Bcrdan and his officers recognized that men who took long marches across battlefields to fight battles in strictly skirmish order would have to be in top-notch physical condition. Therefore, they set up organized football games and jumping, racing, wrestling, lx>xing, and fencing matches. In the winter they also organized snowball contests between units.

Orders in line infantry units were given by drum beats. However, the wide regimental fronts of the skirmishers called for bugles to be used instead of drums for commands. Each company was assigned two buglers who were trained by Chief Bugler Calvin Morse until they were noted as being excellent musicians with not just calls, but "very fair dress 12 parade music," according to Sevens.

Training for all ranks continued in the field. William Greene wrote home from camp in Falmouth in August 1862. "The ('.apt. is out taking lessons in sword practice. A man from Washington is here and has a class of 12 officers." And. when Major Charles Mattocks took over the 1st USSS in April 186-1 he "instituted thorough and systematic schools of officers and non-commissioned officers." Mattocks found the regiment poorly disciplined and was determined to improve this situation. Later he wrote, "I have schools of officers three times a week and Lieut. Killiet. Act. Adjt., has the Sergeants over the coals as many times also. I fancy I can already see a great improvement in my lawless command."

Still later Mattocks reported that, "I still keep up the recitations in Tactics. The officers recite Mondays. Wednesdays and Fridays to me. 1 he Sergeants are put through by Capt. Aschmann on Tuesdays. Thursdays and Saturdays. Lieut. Rilliet. Acting Adjutant, drills the officers in Bayonet Exercise each day from 11 to 12."

Weapons, equipment, uniforms

In August 1861 Bcrdan wrote to New York's governor asking that the state clothe its sharpshooter company. The uniform, he wrote, consists of a green cloth coal, with black metal buttons - pants of same color & material. Goatskin leggings. & hair outside. 2 pair strong low shoes - with leather gaiters. Grey felt hat. Grey overcoat with'cape moveable & india rubber lined. The fatigue dress will be green flannel "round about" (jacket] & pants - 2 pairs grey russia linnen pants proper under clothes. My reasons for selecting this uniform are that the men composing this regiment will not consent to wear the common U.S. uniform; and as they will Ik- skirmishers, they should not be conspicuously dressed - the green will harmoni/.c with the leaves of summer while the grey overcoat will accord with surrounding objects in fall & winter.

The goatskin leggins are to protect the legs against snakes and briars.

Berdan Sharpshooter Gaiters

An article in the Detroit Daily Tribune described a 1st USSS company, when it was formed, as wearing a "complete outfit of the sharpshooters, which consists of a regulation undress blue jacket and Austrian grey pants, a frock and fatigue cap of green cloth, an extra felt hat with a leather visor and cape to cover the neck, and a seamless cloth overcoat with cape." The Detroit Daily Advertiser added thai the uniform included "Austrian blue-grey pantaloons, gaiters and a green kepi."

The Neiu York Times' correspondent wrote in August 1^61:

Berdan Sharpshooter Gaiters

Evenings in camp were largoly spent reading, chatting, and cooking. (Harper's Weekly)

The uniform of the sharp-shooters will be green in summer and gray at other seasons, to assimilate as nearly as possible the colors of nature. ... They will be armed with the most improved Springfield rifle, with a plain silver pin sight at the muzzle, and a notch sight, or ihc globe sight at the breech for long range, or 011 a dark day. or night shooting. It was intended to arm them with the Northern target-rifle, but it was found that there were not enough in the country. Colonel Berdan has invented a ball which is superior to the old Springfield rifle ball. It will earn- with great accuracy a distance of 3000 feet. It is a grooved and conical ball, and is almost certain for a horse at the distance of three-fifths of a mile. Each man mav take his own rifle if he wishes.

Evenings in camp were largoly spent reading, chatting, and cooking. (Harper's Weekly)

The original uniform was described in the New York Herald of November 10, 1861, as "a green frock coat, with emerald green cord trimmings, green cap, sky-blue trousers - everything else according to army regulations." By May 1862 the sky blue trousers were replaced with green trousers that matched the coat, although from time to time regular army dark blue blouses and sky blue trousers were issued when green ones were not available.

Captain C.A. Stevens recalled:

Private Abner Colby, Company G, 2nd USSS. holds what appears to be a James target riflo, probably his personal weapon, In this rare Image. (Bill Whisler collection)

Our uniform was of fine material, consisting of dark green coat and cap with black plume, light blue trowsers (afterward exchanged for green ones) and leather leggins, presenting a striking contrast to the regular blue of the infantry. ... By our dress coats were we known far and wide, and the appellation of "Green Coats" was soon acquired. ...

We wore for a time, principally on outpost duty or in bad weather, what were called "Havelocks," a gray, round hat with a wide black visor, good enough around Washington far within the lines, but after our first appearance before the enemy the following spring, they were discarded as endangering a lire from the rear. Certain gray felt, seamless overcoats were likewise abandoned, although they were good rain shedders. only they became when wet stiff as a board.

Private Abner Colby, Company G, 2nd USSS. holds what appears to be a James target riflo, probably his personal weapon, In this rare Image. (Bill Whisler collection)

Berdan Sharpshooters Leggings

The bluc-grav stiff felt caps, which had a visor and a brim that reached around to the back to protect against sun and rain, were known as "Whipple hats," after their designer and manufacturer. These were replaced by standard-pattern forage caps, made of green, starting in November 1862. The overcoats, made to a pattern studied by the army in 1859. were replaced with standard foot-pattern skv blue overcoats in 1862. There were practical reasons for abandoning these two uniform issue items; Captain YV.Y.W. Ripley. 1st USSS. noted that lighting in the early battle of Big Bethel "had taught them one lesson, however, that certain grey overcoats and Mavelock hats of the same rebellious hue were promptly exchanged for others of a color in which they were less apt to be shot by mistake by their own friends."

Swiss-born Captain Rudolf Aschmann of the 1st USSS recalled that. The officers' uniforms, though made with more care and of finer cloth, were not much different from those of the soldiers and just as simple by comparison. The insignia were no glittering epaulets, only a narrow band edged with gold braid and fastened on the shoulder, showing the different badges of rank. For daily-use or so-called lesser tenue we had a blue flannel jacket which was worn in the field even by officers."

Several men of this Regt. refused some time since to receive green clothing upon the ground that the blue clothing had been issued to them but a short time before, and it was subjecting them to a double expense to draw green when they had a supplv of blue. Charges were at once preferred against them

The first buttons issued were bright brass general-service buttons, but soon New York manufacturer Thomas F. Carhart supplied plain ball buttons made of black thermoplastic. As well, the sutlers obtained black thermoplastic general-service buttons that bore the eagle and shield design, which they sold to individual officers and men who had lost their issue ball buttons.

In fact, the independent nature of the Sharpshooters showed itself in the way they often dressed in the field. A reviewing oflicer in December 1862 reported that they were "perfect slouches and slovens in appearance [of whom] hardly any two are uniformed alike." Major Charles Mattocks, then commanding the 1st USSS, described his regiment on taking command in March 1864: "They arc clothed in every shape (some of them), and present anything but a martial appearance."

Indeed, Company F, 1st USSS was issued with two flannel sack coats, five pairs of cavalry trousers, and 11 pairs of privates' foot trousers, probably of regular army dark blue for the coats and sky blue for the trousers. This eventually created problems when the army attempted to maintain the men in distinctive green dies», often to the complaints of the sharpshooters themselves. On April 8. 1864 Mattocks wrote to the Quartermaster General in Washington that:

A Windslow Homer drawing of a sharpshooter In the Poninsula Campaign with his targot rifle. The woodcut from Homer's drawing appeared In Harper's Weekly.

and the cases have been ordered before a field officers Court Martial. There has been much trouble in this Reg. on this point and I had hoped that one of the cases might Ik* brought before a G.C.M. so as to establish a precedent for a field officers Court to act upon. I trust you will see the propriety of having such a point settled by the highest legal authority. The ground taken by the defense is that a man cannot be compelled to draw a new suit of green when he has already drawn of blue, which is still in good condition - in Quartermasters dept. at Washington or rlsnvhar green clothing can not always Ik» obtained.

A target rifle made for US military cadet Instruction in 1860 by Morgan Jairos of Utlca, New Yorfc. (West Point Museum collections)

In fact, making sure green uniforms were issued was so important that the regiment actually recycled used clothing. In November 1864 Private White described his wardrobe as including "four woolen shirts. 2 prs draw(erl's, 2 prs home made stockings & 3 prs army draw's. I have my vest (the one I had when at home) vet. 1 wore it all summer & it is good yet. I have put a new back into it. Our green coats that were sent to Alexandria last spring have come bark & I have a new one. one that belonged to a boy that died. I have got a new pair pants (I wore the ones I had at home all summer) & a pair of boots."

Mattocks also reported on April 27, 18(>4 that "the Sutler of this Regiment has been taxed 10 Cents per (man present) monthly. The money thus obtained h.is formed a Regimental fund which has been applied to the purchase of gutta percha buttons, green stripes, and green Chevrons, which are not f urnished by the-Government, also red cloth for the Div badges requisions not baring been filled by the Quart Mst Depot."

The final change was the return of the brown russet leather leggings first issued the regiments, which were found useless. On the other hand, they retained the so-called "Prussian pattern" calf's hide knapsacks that were originally obtained by a New York makeu-in mid-1861 at a cost of $3.50 each. An additional thousand of these knapsacks were later supplied by Tiffany, New York, at S3.75 each.

"The knapsack," Stevens wiote. "was of hair-covered calfskin, with cooking kit attached, considered the best in use. as it was the handsomest, most durable and complete." Ripley wrote that. "The knapsacks were of a leather tanned with the hair on, and although heavier than the regulation knapsack, fitted the back well, were roomy, and highly appreciated by the men. Each had strapped to its outside a small cooking kit. which was found compact and useful."

Another specialized piece of equipment was the "climbers'," equipment strapped to the leg with which the user could climb trees to be on a high point to work as a sniper. Two sets of these were issued to each company.

Green uniforms designed for the USSS were also issued to the 203rd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry (Birney's Sharpshooters) in 186*1, as well as some of the New York Independent Sharpshooter companies. This was as much due to the fact that the Quartermaster Department had enough green uniforms on hand to so clothe these units according to the term "sharpshooter" in their designations. In fact, the 203rd was never armed with anything but issue rifle muskets and did not actually serve as sharpshooters, although so clad. Regular army blue uniforms were worn by other sharpshooter units, although Birge's Western Sharpshooters wore pins with the initials W.S.S. as cap badges, while the 1st Michigan Sharpshooter Regiment wore old rifle regiment horns placed vertically on their caps.

The men from Companies C and E. 1st USSS arrived at their first camp fully armed with target rifles. I lowever, these were usually heavy, weighing between 15 and 30 pounds, and fired a small ball that would not be deadly at longer ranges. Company A's men arrived with Colt rifles, but the other companies arrived in the initial camp of instruction unarmed.

Berdan's original idea was simply to accept the standard issue -*MI86I Springfield rifled musket. However, a muzzle-loader such as the Springfield would be difficult to reload when firing prone or even kneeling. The manual called for it to be reloaded by rolling onto one's back, but this movement broke eye contact with the target, and made it a poor weapon for sharpshooters.

Therefore, Bcrdan himself tested various military weapons and a sharpshooter with his target decided that the Sharpshooters would be best armed with breech- ri,le- »Author's collection) loading 0.52 caliber Sharps rifles, a longer version of the Sharps carbine. But in this he ran into immediate opposition from the Ordnance Department's Brigadier General James Ripley, who felt that anything oilier than muzzle-loading weapons were simply ammunition wasters. On top of that, the Shaips rifles cost $42 each, compared to $13 for the standard issue rifled musket, something that caused the miserly Ripley pain. Moreover, neither the army nor Sharps had enough weapons on hand to immediately equip both regiments until mid-I8t>2. Until then, the men had to make do with Colt revolving rifles, save for two companies who used target rifles.

This did not make the men happy. Private William Greene, 2nd USSS, wrote home that his company commander went up the chain of command to see "if they could oblige us to take any other gun except Sharps Improved and if they cannot he says his men shall take no other. So I guess they can't put Colt's revolving rifles on to us. They had Colts revolvers here shooting yesterday and Berdan said if we did not except [accept] them we should take muskets, but they can't quite cover it."

In January 1862 things almost came to a head when the men gathered in their camp, hanging up an effigy of Berdan that was hanged and then kicked apart by the men. Berdan. in fear for his life, posted 17

1st Massachusetts Sharpshooter

Company A, 1st USSS, armed with Colt rifles, around his own headquarters. Berdan promised the men would eventually get Sharps rilles, and said that for the time being they would get Colt revolving rifles, hut this was no more than a stop-gap measure. On February 6, 1862 Greene added, "We have received our rifles today. They are Colts revolving-five shooting ones. Some of the regiment refused to take them at first but concluded to at last."

As Stevens recalled, "it was thought at first that these Colts would not shoot true, but this proved not exactly the case as they were pretty good line shooters, although there was some danger of all the chambers exploding at once." The Colts were made like shoulder versions of Colt revolving pistols, and a spark flying between the cylinder and the exposed rounds in the other chambers could set them off. Hence it was not a good thing to rest the part of the weapon forward of the cylinder on one's hand when firing. This made the weapon somewhat untrustworthy.

Ever the marketing master, Berdan announced a major shooting match in October 1861 to which he invited President Abraham Lincoln. The President himself shot, and shot well, but was outdone when Berdan put out the right eve of an effigy of Confederate President Jefferson Davis at a range of 600 yards. Lincoln called it a "lucky shot," but added, "Come down tomorrow, and I will give you the order for the breech loaders." At the same time. New Hampshire's governor, visiting his company, learned of the problem and visited the Secretary of War, the President, and McClellan to press for the issue of Sharps rifles.

The Sharps came with a special pellet primer that was designed to feed pellets that ignited the charge without the use of caps. These were rarely used except one time when C.A. Stevens recalled, "It was a bitter cold morning, the men's lingers were too benumbed to quicklv cap their pieces, and the Sharpshooters resorted to the primers, which was seldom done excepting in cases of necessity."

With this top-level pressure, the Ordnance Department ordered 1000 Sharps rifles and special cartridge boxes, along with otherwise standard infantry equipment, on January 27, 1862. The boxes were designed to be worn on the waist belt, rather than slung from a shoulder belt, and held two tins with wooden blocks that held 10 cartridges each, with another 20 cartridges in their wrappers in the bottoms of the tins.

In April 1864 the inspector general of the division in which the 1st USSS was assigned recommended replacing these unique boxes with standard rifle musket 0.58 cartridge boxes. Maddock fought this with a petition from the regimental officers that he sent to higher headquarters.

a Colt revolving rifle. (West Point THe- unit was on its way and the men were happy to finally get the

Museum collections) Sharps rifles that they had been promised originallv. Indeed, the Sharps

Mi86i RifleCaptain Rudolf Aschmann

Sergeant James Staples wears the original gray overcoat issued to the usss and holds a Colt revolving rifle.

proved to be an excellent sharpshooter's weapon as it came with double-set triggers, in which pulling the rear trigger tightened the front one so that it became essentially a hair trigger. The weapon could also be fired as often as ten times a minute, compared to the three times a minute of a good rifled musket shot. The Sharps also came with a handsome, brass-hilted saber bayonet, although one inspector reported that many of the men had thrown their bayonets away as being useless. The down side was that the Sharps was only-sighted up to 800 yards, although on one occasion sharpshooters made their own wooden additions to the issue sights and cleared a tower of Confederate signal men at a distance of some 1500 yards.

Although it was rare for sharpshooters to do any long-range shooting, heavy target rifles fitted with telescopes were kept in regimental supply wagons at the rate of one per company. On a halt, the best shot in each company would draw this weapon and then return it when the unit was preparing for the next march.

Out west, Birge's Western Sharpshooters, later designated the 66th Illinois Infantry, was armed with the Dimick "American deer and target rifle." These were half-stock, muzzle-loading sporting rifles with various calibers and rear sights made by the Sharps Company and had been obtained by a St Louis gunsmith, Horace F.. Dimick, from a number of western gunsmiths. Each man received his own bullet mold that fired a special "Swiss Chasseur" bullet. These weapons were sometimes fitted with either a socket, clasp, or sword bayonet. Later many men in the 66th bought Henry repeating rifles, which were quick-firing weapons but not especially accurate at any distance.

Ohio sharpshooter companies recruited in 1862 received Spencer rifles, which, like the Henry, was a quick-shooting repeater, but not terribly accurate. The Spencer, designed by Connecticut native Christopher Spencer and made by a number of New England factories, was a 0.56 caliber breech-loading weapon that held a 7-round magazine.

The two companies recruited in Massachusetts and assigned to the 15th and 20th Massachusetts Regiments retained their own target rifles, although offered the use of Sharps rifles.

The 1st Michigan Sharpshooters received standard issue 0.58 caliber rifled muskets and, indeed, mostly served as a standard infantry unit.

Sergeant James Staples wears the original gray overcoat issued to the usss and holds a Colt revolving rifle.

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    Where to buy russet leather leggings?
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    When are goatskin leggings worn by men?
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