Chronology

1820 Missouri Compromise admits

Missouri as a slave state, but prohibits slavery elsewhere in the Louisiana territory above latitude 36° 30' N 1831 Nat Turner's slave rebellion sends shock waves through the South; William Lloyd Garrison founds abolitionist newspaper The Liberator

1845 Texas admitted to the Union 1846-48 War between the United States and Mexico

1846 Wilmot Proviso calls for barring slavery from lands acquired from Mexico

1848 Free Soil Party fields presidential candidate 1850 Compromise of 1850 includes admission of California as a free state and enactment of a tough Fugitive Slave Law 1852 Whig Party fields its last serious presidential candidate, signals breakdown of the two-party system; publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin makes many northerners sensitive to the issue of slavery 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act inflames sectional tensions 1857 The Supreme Court's Dred Scott decision opens Federal territories to slavery and outrages many people in the North

1859 John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry intensifies sectional tensions

1860 6 November Abraham Lincoln elected President

20 December South Carolina secedes from the Union

1861 9 January-1 February The remaining six states of the Lower South secede

4 February-11 March Convention of delegates from the seceded states in

Montgomery, Alabama, writes a Constitution and selects Jefferson Davis and Alexander H. Stephens as provisional President and Vice-President of the Confederate States of America 4 March Lincoln's first inaugural address

12-13 April Confederate bombardment results in the surrender of Fort Sumter

15 April Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion 17 April-8 June Four states of the Upper South secede in response to Lincoln's call for volunteers

Early May Winfield Scott briefs President Lincoln about a strategy later known as the 'Anaconda Plan'

20 May Confederate Congress votes to move national government from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, Virginia

21 July Battle of First Manassas or Bull Run

1 November George B. McClellan replaces Winfield Scott as General-inChief of the US army 1862 25 February President Lincoln signs the Legal Tender Act, which creates national Treasury notes soon dubbed 'greenbacks'

17 March George B. McClellan begins movement of Union troops to Virginia Peninsula

16 April Confederate Congress passes the first National Conscription Act in American history

8 May 'Stonewall' Jackson wins the Battle of McDowell, the first of several victories in his Shenandoah valley campaign; other victories follow at Front Royal (23 May), First

Winchester (25 May), Cross Keys (8 June), and Port Republic (9 June) 15 May US Congress passes the Homestead Bill

31 May-1 June Battle of Seven Pines or Fair Oaks

1 June Robert E. Lee takes command of Confederate army at Richmond 25 June-1 July Seven Days battles reverse a tide of Union military success as Lee drives McClellan away from Richmond in action at Mechanicsville (26 June), Gaines's Mill (27 June), Savage Station (29 June), Glendale or Frayser's Farm (30 June), and Malvern Hill (1 July) 9 August Battle of Cedar Mountain 28-30 August Battle of Second Manassas or Bull Run 17 September Battle of Antietam or Sharpsburg ends Lee's first invasion of the North

22 September Lincoln issues his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation

5 November Ambrose E. Burnside replaces McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac 13 December Battle of Fredericksburg 1863 1 January Lincoln issues final Emancipation Proclamation 25 January Joseph Hooker replaces Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac

25 February US Congress passes the National Banking Act 3 March US Congress passes the Enrollment Act, which institutes a national draft

2 April Women take to the streets in the Richmond 'bread riot' to protest against food shortages

24 April Confederate Congress enacts the Tax-in-Kind Law, a highly unpopular measure requiring agricultural producers to give a portion of various crops to the national government

1-4 May Battle of Chancellorsville

10 May 'Stonewall' Jackson dies

Background to war

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