Introduction 7 Chronology 9

Background to war

Sectional tensions divide the United States, 1820 -1860 11


Election; Southern secession; creation of the Confederacy 16

Warring sides

Strengths and weaknesses of the Union and the Confederacy 22

The fighting

From First Manassas to Chancellorsville 26

Common soldiers

Federals and Confederates in camp and in battle 70

Portrait of a soldier

Robert Augustus Moor a Confederate soldier 75

The world around war

Northern and Southern society adjust to the demands of war 79

Portrait of a civilian

Elizabeth Herndon Maury on the Virginia home front 87

How the period ended

An uncertain future 91 Further reading 93 Index 94

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