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Myboatplans 518 Boat Plans

Master Boat Builder Martin Reid reveals all of the his best secrets, tips, and tricks for top-quality boat-building in this ebook course on how to build you own amazing boat. You will get access to over 518 step-by-step plans for building the boat of your dreams. You will also get access to video courses on how to make a boat for yourself that can sail whatever waters you choose like a champion. No previous building experience is needed! You can get started building the boat that you want without ever having built a boat or anything else before! All you need is this ebook guide and the simple tools and materials that are called for in the book, then you can just follow the directions and start making your own sea-going vessel; it can be as large or small as you want! Start making your own boat with Martin Reid's expert guidance! Continue reading...

Myboatplans 518 Boat Plans Summary

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Contents: Boat Plans
Author: Martin Reid
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Have Shouldered This Fleet

Scott's plan called for the Navy to blockade the coast, but Southern hydrography and technological advances made the project much easier to assign than to accomplish. Hydrographically, many rivers, bays, and inlets penetrated the South's long, low-lying coast. Coastal irregularity and the limitations of visual surveillance meant that the Union would need many ships to cover the blockaded area, and shallow water meant that blockading vessels would need shallow draft to patrol close enough to shore to be effective. More important, the widespread use of steam propulsion meant that the blockade had to be based on steamers. Sailing ships and underpowered auxiliary steamers were not fast enough to enforce a blockade against steam-propelled merchant ships. Quickly determining that specially adapted steamers would be needed, the board of bureau chiefs recommended that supply ships sail from the North to the Gulf and back by way of Key West, Florida, with a similar plan for the squadron on the...

Preparation for the attack on New Orleans

But their clash in March 1862 convinced naval experts around the world that the era of the wooden warship was over. It also persuaded the North to use its vast factories and shipyards in the production of additional ironclad ships. As these vessels were put into service, the Union was able to further strengthen its control of the seas.

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Under the prewar system, or in fact under the system used for the first three ironclads, the slowness of the central office would have meant little. Each shipyard, working from the specifications, would have made its own model, developed its own materials lists, and ordered its own mate At the same time, the Navy centralized the monitor program under Stimers and Gregory. Cincinnati and Pittsburgh had been in the western area in which Captain Joseph Hull supervised all Navy shipbuilding. On September 26, 1862, Welles transferred responsibility for the western monitors (at that time the Tippecanoe, Catawba, and Manayunk) to Gregory, with Chief Engineer James W. King as supervising engineer.59

Lecture Thirty One The River War and Confederate Commerce Raiders

As many weaker nations had done in the past, the Confederacy turned to commerce raiders to combat a stronger naval opponent. A range of problems convinced the Davis Administration that privateers promised more trouble than results, so the focus shifted to cruisers that would act as commerce raiders (privateers typically sold captured vessels, while commerce raiders typically destroyed them). Confederate strategists hoped these cruisers would do such damage to northern shipping that the North would have to send its blockading squadrons in pursuit of the raiders, terrorize northern coastal areas, and help induce war weariness among northern civilians. Lacking the necessary shipbuilding facilities, the Confederacy purchased several cruisers from British builders. Led by the C.S.S. Alabama, C.S.S. Florida, and C.S.S. Shenandoah, the southern raiders captured more than 250 merchantmen and whalers, drove another 700 to register under foreign flags, and kept many of the remainder in port...

The Richmond Virginia Ii And Fredericksburg

As any map so clearly shows, the geography of the North Carolina coast offered tremendous possibilities to whoever could hold the chain of islands bordering the sounds. In Confederate hands they not only made the Union blockade all but impossible, but they guaranteed the security of the largest body of navigable water in the Confederacy. On the inland coast of the sounds lay a group of towns which housed a respectable shipbuilding industry and a population of good seamen. Rail communications with Atlanta and the interior of North Carolina were good, and communications with Richmond and the James River were enhanced by the presence of the Dismal Swamp Canal. Here was one place where ships could be built in security and the crews

The New Orleans Squadron

In tile summer and fall of 18(il shipyards in and around New Orleans converted or laid down a small flotilla of warships, both wooden gunboats and ironclads. These included two floating batteries, three ironclads and numerous river gunboats, or converted Ocean-going steamers. A fleet of 10 wooden warships (including three tugs) was ready to contest the attack on the defenses below New Orleans by Commodore David G. Farragut's Western Gulf Blockading Squadron On April '24, 18( 2. In addition,

Buchanan Takes Command

On or around 14 February the Merrimac was relaunched, and on 16 February 1862 the Navy officially acquired the Merrimac, which was duly, renamed the CSS Virginia. There was no ceremony, and one sailor recorded only four marines and a corporal were on board at her launching. A week later Flag Officer Franklin Buchanan arrived in Norfolk to oversee the completion of the ironclad. Old Buck and his staff found her far from ready for action, particularly as the vessel was still short of crewmen. While the Executive Officer, Lieutenant Smith, supervised the last-minute preparations of the Virginia, Buchanan sent Lieutenant John Wood, the grandson of President Zachary Taylor, to ask the Army for help. Wood met General Magruder near Yorktown, and of the 200 men who volunteered, the naval officer selected 80 artillerymen or former seamen to serve on board the Virginia. Jones was a hard taskmaster, and he hounded the construction crew and dockyard staff, while complaining to Buchanan about the...

The Benton And The Essex

The snag boat was really a catamaran, with its twin hulls about 20 feet apart. The open space between the hulls was planked over, top and bottom, and a new bow added, forming a strong single hull 75 feet wide and 200 feet long. Upon this was built the usual casemate, only on the Benton the sides were armored as well as the bow with 3 1 2 inches of iron. She carried 16 guns. With all this armor she was somewhat overloaded, and her top speed was only 5 knots.

Mobilization on the Ohio River

The shipyard itself also needed preparation. The first requirement was a shiphouse, a large shed that more or less protected the ship and the workmen from inclement weather. Litherbury's shipyard included a small shiphouse, but it was not large enough to hold a monitor, and Greenwood had to build a new one. At their site, Swift and Niles had only a lot they had to build two shiphouses, one for each monitor. The shipbuilders also needed to grade and level the areas in their yards where their ships would be built and begin to make the blocks upon which the keels would be laid down. Once the general plan of the ships was received, the keel blocks could be finished and set in place.3 Few subcontracting relationships are evident in the construction of the western harbor and river monitors, although Greenwood had more than Swift. Swift & Co. and Niles Works accepted the contracts for the Catawba and Oneota as partners rather than as contractor and subcontractor although Swift appears to...

Background the blockade

Picture Blockade For Closing Ports

The blockade formed a major part of the so-called Anaconda plan developed by General Winfield Scott, which envisaged an economic stranglehold of the Confederacy by a blockading fleet, and the physical dismemberment of the Southern States by the seizure of the Mississippi River. When the war began, the US Navy was in no position to do anything more than institute a token blockade. Over the coming months Gideon Welles ordered the purchase and conversion of hundreds of steam-powered vessels, creating an extemporized fleet which was large and powerful enough to turn Lincoln's token blockade into an effective one. Welles also instituted an ambitious ship-building program, creating purpose-built warships which were fast enough to intercept enemy blockade runners and high-seas raiders. Captured blockade runners at anchor off New York in 1862. The vessel in the foreground is the British sidewheel steamer Elizabeth, while the remainder of the prizes appear to be sailing ships. From Harper's...

Lieutenant US Navy and First Lieutenant US Marine Corps

Union Navy Uniform Civil War

Perhaps the most responsible task to befall a naval officer was the oversight of a gun and its crew. Many different types of gun entered service with the U.S. Navy, but the larger rifles and smoothbores such as this Dahlgren 11-inch were the most likely to be found aboard sea-going sloops and cruisers.

Early blockade runners

Confederate Blockade Runners

Before the outbreak of war, the Southern states had virtually no steam-powered merchant marine. When President Lincoln announced the imposition of the blockade, neutral shipping was given 15 days to leave Southern ports. In 1861, the bulk of cotton cargoes exported was shipped by foreign vessels, or else moved by river to Northern ports, where American-registered vessels transported the cotton to Europe. Most foreign vessels which happened to be on the scene at the start of the war sailed from Southern ports before the blockade was established, leaving behind a collection of merchant ships which were ill-suited to run through an enemy blockade. Initially, the Confederate merchant marine was made up of river boats, sailing ships, small coastal steamers, and just ten ocean-going steam ships. All of these large steamers would eventually be taken over by the Confederate Navy, and none of them attempted to run the blockade before their conversion into warships began. This meant that the...

Cascoclass Monitor Technical Specifications

Double Case Mate Confederate Ironclad

The Albernarle-c zss ironclad consisted of the Albemarle, Neuse, and a third unnamed vessel. Each of these purpose-built vessels had an octagonal casemate on a flat hull, designed by Commander James W. Cooke, and built by Gilbert Elliot, who established a shipyard in a cornfield at Edwards Ferry on the Roanoke River in North Carolina. The CSS Albemarle was damaged during launch on July 1, 1863, and taken to Halifax, North Carolina, for completion. She attacked the Union squadron off Plymouth, North Carolina, sinking USS Southfieldon April 19, 1864, and was damaged during a second attack on May 5 of the same year. She was finally sunk at her moorings in the Roanoke River by a Union spar torpedo boat on October 28, 1864. Raised by Union troops, she was taken to the Norfolk Navy Yard in April 1865.

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During the Civil War Florida's many small harbors and inlets were used for blockade running, while the Union navy employed Key West as the base of its Florida blockade. The British Bahamas and Spanish Cuba were within easy sailing distance from the Florida coast. Many small blockade-runner schooners and sloops were lost in Florida waters because of storms and Union blockaders. In a seven-month period in the St. Johns River, Confederate torpedoes and artillery sank the Union vessels Alice Price, USS Columbine, General Hunter, Harriet A. Weed, and Maple Leaf. A number of Union vessels were lost on Florida's reefs and in storms. USS Columbine (A. H. Schultz). Union. Side-wheel steam gunboat tug, 133 bulk tons. Length 117 feet, beam 20 feet 7 inches, depth 6 feet 2 inches. Complement of twenty-five, with two 20-pounder Parrott rifles or two 25-pounder Dahlgren smoothbores. Built in 1850 at New York City. While returning from Volusia with 146-48 onboard, including a detachment of 25...

Color Plate Commentary

Picture Blockade Running

The iron-hulled screw steamer Aries was built in Sir James Laing's Shipyard at Sunderland in north-east England during 1861-62, and was launched in February 1862. Although not designed as a blockade runner, she was reasonably well suited to the role, although with a draft of 16ft she was too large to cross the Wilmington bar. She was sold to a London shipowner, Frederick Obicino, who elected to use her to run the blockade. She made her first run from Nassau to Charleston in November 1862, and managed to slip into the port undetected. Just over a month later, in late December, Originally known as the Giraffe, this lean, fast vessel was built on Clydeside by the John Brown shipyard as a Glasgow to Belfast steam packet. She was 268ft long, with a 26-ft beam and a 12-ft draft, and her engines could achieve speeds of 13V2 knots. She was bought by Alexander Collie & Co. of Manchester, then fitted out as a blockade runner. Before she

Specialized blockade runners

Illustrated London News 1862

By this stage of the war it was becoming clear which type of vessels made the best blockade runners. After the first few months of the conflict, sailing ships were no longer considered suitable as they were too easy to spot and too slow to evade pursuit. And analysis of shipping returns shows that after the summer of 1862 only 40 sailing vessels attempted to run the blockade off Charleston for the remainder of the war, and almost all of these were small schooners and sloops. The first Clyde steamer to be used as a blockade runner was the Herald, a Dublin to Glasgow packet purchased by Fraser, Trenholm & Co. in mid-1862. Within a year, the Clyde shipyards were filled with similar vessels which were undertaking conversion from packets into blockade runners. The conversion process was simple. First, any state rooms were From late 1863 onwards the shipyards on the Clyde in or near Glasgow and on the Mersey in or near Liverpool also began to produce vessels which were designed from the...

The blockaderunning ports

New Orleans Port Civil War Blockade

Approximately 40-45 runs through the blockade were made into and out of Wilmington during each quarter of 1864, representing a slight increase in numbers. This bald statistic hides the fact that the number of individual ships dropped through capture and loss, while some ships made a greater number of runs. During this same period only 30-35 successful runs were made into and out of Charleston in the entire year, less than a quarter of the traffic into and out of Wilmington. The number of vessels being captured off Charleston was also increasing steadily. A similar situation was encountered at Mobile, where the tight Union blockade meant that only 20 successful arrivals and 19 departures were logged during 1864. A

United States Navy Monitors of the Civil

The fast expanding railroad industry contributed greatly to the use of steam and iron in ships. Although a few more years would pass before the efficiency of steam machinery would allow ocean-going ships to divest themselves completely of their sails, it was becoming obvious that in combat the initiative would always belong to a steam-powered ship ratherthan a sailing ship.

The North Atlantic Blockading Squadron at Hampton Roads

Battle Fort Hampton Roads

The blockading squadron that lay in Hampton Roads during the first week of March 1862 was representative of the blockading forces that encircled the Confederacy. All were unarmored vessels, and almost all were wooden. The most powerful ships were the steam frigates USS Minnesota (Captain Gershon Van Brunt) and USS Roanoke (Captain John Marston), both well armed with the latest shell guns. Marston was also the acting commander of the squadron during the battle. The squadron also included several sailing warships, echoes of a bygone age. While they lacked the maneuverability of steam warships, they did possess a powerful enough armament, and were therefore useful, at least until more modern warships could be found to replace them. These sailing ships included the frigates USS Congress (Lieutenant Joseph Smith) and USS St. Lawrence (Captain H. Purvayance), plus the USS Cumberland (Captain William Radford), formerly a frigate that had been razeed or cut down to make a smaller but more...

The Third System of coastal fortification

General Simon Bernard

Navy, not the Army, should be the first line of defense in coastal waters. They listed the important naval bases, shipyards and harbors, and proposed means of protecting these strategically important locations through the construction of new fortifications. In addition, they recommended the fortification of several coastal cities, river mouths and entrances to inland waterways, which, taken together, would create a powerful defensive barrier protecting the most vital areas of the coast. The Board also discussed road and water communications along the American coastline, and the employment of the Army and Navy in the event of a coastal attack.1 Of the 40 sites they listed, 17 were deemed of the utmost importance to national security and the Bernard Board urged that defensive measures should be taken immediately in order to safeguard their security. The remaining sites were grouped into two bands of lesser importance. The Secretary of War accepted...

The Capture Of Norfolk Navy Yard

Images The Norfolk Naval Yard

In 1861, the steam frigate USS Merrimac was one of the most powerful warships in the US Navy. She was one of a series of six 40-gun steam frigates ordered in 1854, and from her launch in Boston the following year she was regarded as the pride of the fleet. She served in the West Indies and the Pacific before being sent to Norfolk Navy Yard in February 1860 for a major refit. Norfolk Navy Yard was considered the premier yard in the country. It covered 108 acres in the Gosport suburb of Portsmouth, across the Elizabeth River from Norfolk itself, and combined being a major shipbuilding yard with service as the Navy's primary ordnance and munitions depot. It boasted a large granite dry dock, machine shops, a foundry, and three shipbuilding slips. Work continued in the yard in early 1861 even though war seemed imminent, as the base commandant was reluctant to begin any evacuation, which might provoke Virginia to secede. out his orders. On 20 April the commandant of the yard, Commodore...

Stevens Floating Battery

Iron Clad Rail Car Civil War

Ironclad oceangoing vessels were already in the process of revolutionizing war at sea when the American Civil War began in 1861. The main navies of the world had been experimenting with steam-powered propulsion and floating batteries for years before the advent of the Confederate casemated ironclad Virginia and the Union turreted ironclad Monitor. The earliest experiments in the use of iron plate to resist the force of cannonballs appear to have been made in France as early as 1810 by a Monsieur de Montgery, an officer in the French Navy. Montgery proposed covering the sides of Napoleon's ships with several plates of iron of the aggregate thickness of 4 inches, but the French Emperor rejected the idea. Having lost the battles of the Nile and Trafalgar, Napoleon preferred to concentrate on his more successful land campaigns. In 1813, Pennsylvanian-born Robert Fulton designed the first US Navy (USN) vessel to use steam, which may be considered the prototype of the later steam-propelled...

Ironclads in the Confederate States Navy

Confederate Ironclads

Mallory also took steps at the same time to get an ironclad program under way in the Confederacy itself. Captain Duncan Ingraham, recently resigned from the U.S. Navy, was ordered to make a survey of wrought-iron platemaking facilities in the Confederacy, and to ascertain means for transporting iron to New Orleans, the principal shipbuilding The average size of these ships was 150 feet by 40 feet with from 4 to 6 guns. In virtually every instance, their engines were too small to propel them adequately. Five knots was a good speed for a Confederate ironclad. The armor was usually 4 inches thick, insufficient to protect them from a 15-inch smoothbore, or even a 10-inch with a heavy charge of powder. Armor not only was inadequate but in short supply. Many - in fact most - of the ships laid down were never completed for lack of iron plating. In view of this, apparently the Confederates would have been wiser to build smaller ships with only two guns, pivot rifles if possible, of shallower...

Chief of ordnance for the Confederacy

Army The Confederacy

As the war progressed, Confederate armies suffered from shortages of blankets, food, and other provisions (supplies) with increasing frequency. But the Confederate Ordnance Bureau maintained regular shipments of arms and ammunition to rebel armies across the South, thanks to the tireless efforts of Gorgas and trusted lieutenants like George W. Rains. Gorgas used all sorts of schemes to meet the military's ammunition and weaponry needs. For example, he launched an extensive blockade-running operation that provided the Confederate Army with nearly two-thirds of its small arms (blockade runners were small ships that evaded the Union naval blockade of Confederate harbors in order to bring needed supplies to the South). He also expanded production of gunpowder, rifle barrels, and other weaponry by using private homes as small factories. When the South began to experience shortages of raw materials used in the production of ordnance, Gorgas even became an expert at finding substitute...

The Battlefield Today

Fort Monroe

The Norfolk Navy Yard in Portsmouth, Virginia, still exists as a naval establishment, and is located on the western bank of the Elizabeth River, immediately over the Jordan Bridge, off Route 337 (Elm Avenue). Parts of the shipyard are open to the public, and the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Museum interprets the history of the base, and the story of the building of the Merrimac Virginia. Of particular interest is a model of the dry dock where the Merrimac was converted into the Virginia. A pedestrian ferry that runs seven days a week links the site with downtown Norfolk. Visitors to the area should also visit the nearby Lighthouse Museum, which provides a useful insight into maritime activity on the Elizabeth River. The Old Naval Hospital Building is located close to the riverfront at. the northern end of Portsmouth, and stands on the site where Flag Officer Buchanan and other Confederate and Union wounded were taken for treatment after the first day's battle. Across the river lies...

The Arkansas And The Tennessee

Transmission Line Clip Art

Can do anything in the way of shipbuilding if I only had the money. Please let me hear from you. North By the time the Confederates had the money necessary to purchase ironclads, the portents indicated a Northern victory, and the Lincoln government was not backward in letting the British and French governments know what would happen to them when the war was over. Great Britain could expect a fleet of American commerce raiders to destroy her commerce as the Alabama and the Florida had ruined that of the United States and the French Emperor was given to understand that one day he might well see American shipyards building ironclads for Prussia

Lyran Alliance Worlds

Today Alarion is a center of industry and a province capital. Very few areas of Alarion's two continents of New Brunswick and New Jordan are unsettled. The Alliance's only naval shipyard, Port Sydney, operates near Alarion while Bowie Industries is located on New Jordan. Alarion has many tropical islands that have become tourist retreats. Craiova, the capital, is located on New Brunswick.

The North Carolina And The Raleigh

He decided to build the Albemarle at Edward's Ferry, about 10 miles downriver from Halifax, where he had leased the farm of one Peter Smith. Although the farm contained no machine shops, or shipbuilding facilities, there were abundant stands of yellow pine, needing only to be cut. Carpenters and blacksmiths were recruited and soon were working in the open field. Flag Officer Lynch reported that the Albemarles keel was laid in April, 1863, and by November she had been launched ( without her plating, engines, or boilers ). After launching, she was moved upriver to be completed at Halifax, where there were good railroad connections to Richmond. As was always the case, at this point progress slowed to a crawl. There was intense competition in Richmond for the services of the Tredegar Works among elements of the Army and the Navy, and Cooke was forced to bring some of his plating all the way from Atlanta. The ship's engines, as usual, were salvaged - no one knows where - and were in poor...

Unarmored steam vessels

In 1854 six large screw frigates were built the five ships of the Merrimack class and the Niagara. On her first cruise to Europe, the Merrimack created a sensation in naval circles with battery and steaming endurance greater than contemporary European frigates. The Hartford class of steam sloops in 1858 again combined superior firepower with high endurance on a smaller hull. A large number of sturdy steam sloops were built during the war. In addition smaller warships known as double-enders and 90-day gunboats were produced in large numbers and served throughout the war. Hastily built, they wore out quickly. A series of new vessels was ordered toward the end of the war that sought to utilize the lessons learned during the war. Unfortunately, most of these were built with unseasoned timber, and the hulls deteriorated very quickly. These included the swift cruisers of the Ammonoosuc class, the frigates of the Java class, and the sloops of the Contoocook and Algoma classes. Only a few...

Confederate States Navy

The United States Navy was the possessor of some fine new propeller-driven warships such as the frigates of the Merrimack class and the Hartford-class sloops, which, although having machinery problems, were greatly admired in naval circles. As war loomed, many new ships were ordered including such revolutionary designs as the ironclad vessels Monitor and New Ironsides. Whole classes of new sloops and monitors were built 90-day gunboats, double-enders, and others rapidly enlarged At first, the Confederate Navy obviously did not exist and had to make do with makeshift designs and conversions. Greatly hampered by lack of industrial capacity, it was unable to match the ship-building program of the North and tried by various devices to raise a fleet. Of great interest were the several ships built and purchased in Great Britain and France, only a few of which ever sailed under the Confederate flag. Some, however, such as the Alabama and Shenandoah, were responsible for a great deal of...

Editorially Speaking

Speed with which the whole series of designs was conceived and built. This reflected great credit on the US (Federal) Navy, for it should not be forgotten that there were very few resources to sustain iron shipbuilding in the United States in 1 862. The railroads were the principal basis of American technology, and so many ideas were adapted from existing railroad practice.

The Warrior

While the tradition does go back to the time of Nelson, Villeneuve, and Preble, nevertheless its first really great flowering was during the Civil War. Prior to that time, shipbuilding and ship design in a basically agricultural community were rather narrow and specialized fields, and the country as a whole was involved neither in building the Navy nor in manning it. The Civil War, however, drew upon the energies of the entire community (as has every war since). Some of the most fascinating stories of the conflict involve the efforts, successful or otherwise, simply to build these awesome monsters, sometimes in places where the most sophisticated industrial plant consisted of a blacksmith shop and a steam-powered sawmill.

Social Changes

The Civil War provided much of the capital necessary for the expansion of manufacturing and the transformation of urban life. The Confederacy and Union spent an estimated 5.2 billion during the war, and a lion's share of that amount went to the urban developers and factory owners who could outfit and supply the armies. Both armies created supply depots, built railroads, encouraged shipbuilding, and funded armories. However, Union besiegement, occupation of, and destruction of many Southern cities exacerbated the differences between the North and South by the war's end. Southern cities, which had not had the power, population, or industry of their Northern counterparts before the war, were left even further behind as a result of destruction caused during the Civil War.

Kathil

Located deep in the heart of the Capellan March, Kathil is one of the most important worlds within the Federated Suns. Home to General Motors and Yare Shipyards both major FedSuns defense contractors as well as the seat of command for the Capellan March's entire Coreward Combat Theater, the world had played an incredibly important role in the success of the Federated Suns for centuries. What no one expected was just how important a role it would play in the beginning of the Civil War.

Forging the Fleet

The navy's enthusiasm for ironclads led to a construction program that dwarfed any previous shipbuilding effort. Whatever the truth of the claim that the Monitor had included at least forty patentable contrivances, no one could doubt the novelty of the enterprise.1 The Navy soon discovered that its prewar apparatus for building ships could not cope with the twin challenges of wartime urgency and revolutionary technology. Like earlier wooden ships, the six Young America frigates differed slightly from each other. The new technology accentuated the differences because the six power plants were built by five different contrac-tors for practical purposes, each combination of hull and power plant was unique. The Young America frigates, with sound if not outstanding power plants, showed the effectiveness of the new system of performance guarantees. The Navy learned a lesson although it could not control civilian contractors the way it could control its own shipyards, recalcitrant...

Learns to read

At the age of fifteen, Douglass was sent to the city of Baltimore to become a laborer. He learned a trade in the shipbuilding industry how to use a gooey substance called caulk to seal the parts of a boat together and make them watertight. His owner rented him out to shipbuilding companies and received payment for the work he did. During his time working on the docks in Baltimore, Douglass saw boatloads of slaves being transported around the country. I've seen men and women chained and put on a ship to go to New Orleans and I still hear their cries, he noted.

A childhood at sea

Farragut spent the next forty-five years roaming across the oceans of the world. His naval assignments took him as far as the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas, though he also spent considerable amounts of time captaining ships along the coastlines of the United States. Farragut's duties during this time ranged from commanding warships during the Mexican War (1846-48) to supervising the establishment of a naval shipyard in San Francisco Bay in the mid-1850s.

The Navy Looks West

The harbor and river monitors took their name from Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles's letter of March 1862 advising the Navy Department's intent to build monitors for harbor defence and to operate upon the Atlantic coast and in the Gulf of Mexico, but the design for which the Navy contracted in August 1862 underwent drastic modifications that dramatically slowed the ships' construction and raised their cost. The harbor and river monitors engendered a shipbuilding expansion program of unprecedented magnitude and complexity, a program unequaled until the twentieth century. They also captured the difficulty of managing simultaneous expansion and technological development programs. With shipyards drowning in changes, the harbor and river monitors' contracted six months' building time extended to over three years in the expansion yards and averaged twenty-one months even in more experienced yards.

New England

In New England, matters were even more individualized and complex. There, Native American communities were believed to have disappeared, but instead they had eluded detection by outsiders and had intermixed with Africans on the margins of society. Often poor members of fishing and whaling communities, the Indians of New England suffered from the economic turmoil of the war. As shipbuilding turned to the needs of the Union Navy and private owners sold their boats to the navy, the seafaring community suffered. Without sufficient land to provide a self-sufficient existence, New England's Native Americans suffered. As a result, many desperate Native Americans were lured into the army to receive enlistment bounties and wages.

The Mississippi

The Mississippi was the creation of Nelson and Asa Tift, brothers and millionaires who offered to build her for nothing. Nelson Tift produced the basic design. He very intelligently arrived at the conclusion that if the Mississippi were to be finished at all, dependence on conventional shipbuilding techniques and on highly skilled (and scarce) shipwrights must be avoided. He designed her without the complex curved surfaces of most ships of the period and substituted flat planes and angles throughout, thereby permitting the use of ordinary house-building carpenters and equipment.

The Louisiana

In spite of Hollins' early start, it was not until October 15 that the keel of the Louisiana was laid and construction begun. Although New Orleans was a shipbuilding center of sorts, there were neither iron foundries nor facilities for building engines of any size. The process of building her was one that was to be repeated again and again in the Confederacy. The wooden hull and casemate progressed fairly quickly even if the workmanship was rough, for timber was plentiful and readily available (in this case coming from the shores of Lake Pontchartrain by rail). Engines were obtained only by taking them out of an existing boat, with availability the first consideration, state of repair the second, with power and suitability a poor third. When it came to the plating, the situation was always desperate. At this stage the construction effort sagged to the point of despair. Iron of some sort was available, but ironworks, rolling mills, and forges were not. And above all, there was a...

The Albemarle

He decided to build the Albemarle at Edward's Ferry, about 10 miles downriver from Halifax, where he had leased the farm of one Peter Smith. Although the farm contained no machine shops, or shipbuilding facilities, there were abundant stands of yellow pine, needing only to be cut. Carpenters and blacksmiths were recruited and soon were working in the open field. Flag Officer Lynch reported that the Albemarle's keel was laid in April, 1863, and by November she had been launched ( without her plating, engines, or boilers ). After launching, she was moved upriver to be completed at Halifax, where there were good railroad connections to Richmond. As was always the case, at this point progress slowed to a crawl. There was intense competition in Richmond for the services of the Tredegar Works among elements of the Army and the Navy, and Cooke was forced to bring some of his plating all the way from Atlanta. The ship's engines, as usual, were salvaged - no one knows where - and were in poor...

The Confederate Navy

Navy Captain Insignia

A navy to defend the South's waters and to prey on Northern shipping was authorised on 16 March 1861. In late 1864 it numbered 700 commissioned and warrant officers and 3,674 enlisted men, probably its peak strength. Despite a lack of shipbuilding facilities, the Navy launched 37 ironclads, the most famous of which was the CSS Virginia, better known as the Merrimac. This was the first ironclad naval ship in American waters, and its battle with the Northern Monitor changed naval history. The Navy also formed a land brigade for the defence of Richmond in 1864-65, which surrendered with the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox on 9 April 1865.

Uss Merrimack

Uss Monitor Wreck Bones Recovered

Designed by Chief Naval Constructor John Lenthall in 1854, the USS Merrimack (often incorrectly spelled Merrimac) was the first of a new class of steam frigate in the US Navy to be driven by a screw propeller. Built and launched at Boston on June 15,1855, and commissioned February 20,1856, she was named for the river that flows south through New Hampshire and then eastward across northeastern Massachusetts before emptying in the Atlantic at Newburyport, Massachusetts. Also designed by Lenthall, her sister ships were the frigates Wabash, Minnesota, Colorado, and Roanoke. All five vessels were considered to be superior to any warship in the world when launched. A ship of 4,636 tons, the Merrimack was 2 5 feet from prow to stern, with a beam of 51 feet 4 inches and draft of 24 feet 3 inches. Considered a good sailing ship, her two horizontal, double piston rod, condensing engines made at the Cold Springs Foundry, New York, were designed for auxiliary use only. She was armed with 40 guns...

Further Development

Canonicus Crew Photos

The first double-turreted monitor, the USS Onondaga, was photographed in the James River, Virginia, circa 1864 65. Note the awnings over the turrets and deck in an attempt to reduce the impact of hot weather on the vessel and crew. A detachment of Marines man the row boat in the foreground. (Naval Historical Foundation photo NH 60210) The first double-turreted monitor, the USS Onondaga, was photographed in the James River, Virginia, circa 1864 65. Note the awnings over the turrets and deck in an attempt to reduce the impact of hot weather on the vessel and crew. A detachment of Marines man the row boat in the foreground. (Naval Historical Foundation photo NH 60210)

European Waters

The Confederates lost nine killed, twenty-one wounded, and thirteen missing. The USS Kearsarge had only three wounded, including one who later died. The English yacht Deerhound rescued Capt. Raphael Semmes and forty-one Confederates, including twelve officers, and landed them at Southampton, England. A French fishing boat picked up three Confederate officers and six crewmen, taking them to France. The USS Kearsarge captured four officers

Confederate

Navy Stephen Mallory

Porter, principal designer of the CSS Virginia (1821-84) Porter was brought up in Portsmouth, Virginia, where his father owned a civilian shipyard close to the Norfolk Naval Yard. He was duly hired by the US Navy Department as a civilian naval designer, and worked on several projects in the Navy Department, including the development of steam warships. In 1859 he was appointed Naval Constructor, the leading warship design post in the Navy. When Virginia seceded in 1861, Porter resigned his post and returned to Virginia. For a few months he served on the staff of the Virginia State Navy, but following its amalgamation into the new Confederate Navy he joined the offices of the Navy Department in Richmond. Although he held no official position until 1864, he was de facto head of naval construction in the Department. Together with ordnance expert Lieutenant John M. Brooke and engineer William P. Williamson, Porter drew up plans for the conversion of the burned-out warship Merrimac...

CSS Virginia

Ironclad Colors Csn James River Squadron

Confederacy lacked sufficient engineering plants, skilled workers and raw materials, and Porter and his team continually modified their design to suit the manufacturing capacity available to them. The main elements required were wood, rolled iron sheet for the armor plating, a propulsion system, and reliable ordnance. Wood was in plentiful supply, although the ramshackle rail infrastructure made the transport of shipbuilding lumber and metal plates a continual problem. Porter relied on the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia, to supply metal plates. Although the Richmond foundry was the largest ironworks in the Confederacy, it was small in comparison to its northern counterparts. The initial contract specified the use of lin. iron plates, but tests conducted by John M. Brooke at Jamestown proved that a series of one-inch layers would be inadequate protection for the ironclad. Ironically, this was precisely the form of plating fitted to the USS Monitor, but she relied on eight...

The New Ironsides

The design of the New Ironsides was based wholly on that of the French Gloire and the British Warrior solid, conventional construction of wood, conventional rigging and engines, armor amidships protecting the guns and the boilers. The speed was only 6 knots, but then it was not anticipated that she would have to run away from any ship in the world. The New Ironsides also carried a ram on the bow. In terms of contemporary shipbuilding techniques, the New Ironsides was easy to build. She was completed without incident late in 1862 and assigned to the siege of Charleston, where her 11- inch guns fired thousands of rounds at the forts in the next two years. She was hit hundreds of times, and survived, with no serious damage, an attack by what was possibly the most deadly weapon of the naval war a Confederate torpedo boat. The New Ironsides was built by C. W. Merrick and Sons, of Philadelphia, with the white oak hull provided by Cramps Shipyard, also of Philadelphia.

War And Blockade

White River Battle August 1862

To Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles, Union naval strategy was deceptively simple. General Winfield Scott developed the Anaconda Plan , whereby a tight naval blockade would cut off the Confederacy from the outside world. A major thrust down the Mississippi River would cut the country in two, allowing Union forces to squeeze the remaining parts of the Confederacy by land and naval attacks. Deprived of supplies and faced with the industrial might of the North, defeat would be inevitable. When the war began the US Navy was desperately short of ships capable of blockading Southern ports. Although the fleet consisted of over 90 ships, in April 1861, most were either being refitted and repaired in port, or were on deployment overseas. While the Navy launched a major shipbuilding program, Welles ordered the purchase and conversion of dozens of merchant vessels to help maintain the blockade until purpose-built warships became available. During the remainder of 1861, token Union naval...

Miserable Failures

The difficulty stemmed from a failure of shipyard quality control the bolts that held the inner cylinder head of the Weehawken's port engine had been improperly installed. During the trip, the bolts had worked loose, and as the ship prepared to enter Port Royal on February 5, 1863, the piston drove the loose bolts into the inner cylinder head, cracking it. Pieces of the cylinder head jammed the piston, which promptly cracked the cylinder and broke itself in the process. The Weehawken would be out of commission until the cylinder and piston could be replaced, a job that required cutting a hole through the armored deck over the engine room. Either the ship would have to be towed back north for repair or she would have to be fixed in Port Royal.14

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