RiNiiotivatcd soldiers Alexcyev was able to exert a strong influence

!1 ni C'.ossack (¿ouncil. ft after escaping detention, the charismatic General Kornilov it Don Cossack territory the White cause received a further >n 15 November 1917 Kornilov and Alexcyev jointly d the creation of the Volunteer Armv (Dobrovolcheskaya ilthough officially this name was not adopted until 7 ^18. Alexeycv became its first commander-in-chief, lary 1918 the Volunteer Armv. already 2,000 strong, was r 1 to Rostov, since Kornilov could not persuade the Don Ataman Kaledin to take joint action. B\ February 1918 n - ( ossacks had been defeated bv the Red Armv. and the Mrt i Army withdrew behind the River Don. Bv this time the »t««i Army's composition was as follows: Composite Infantrv Regt (Gen. S. Markov): Kornilovskv Shock Inf. Regt M. Nezhent/ov); Partisan Inf. Regt (Gen. A. Bogavevskv); idet (Yunker) Battalion; 1st and 2nd Cavaln Detachments; r\ batteries (one horse, one light). In total it numbered just (.mm, 400 cavaln and eight guns.

March 1918 the Volunteer Armv was strengthened bv in under General Pokrovskv and some Kuban Cossacks. At lar the armv, now numbering .">.000 infantrv 1,000 cavaln and was reorganised, as follows: 1st Bde (under Gen. Markov: Inf. Regt. Kubansk\ Rifle Regt, 1st Artillen Batten); 2nd Bde t> gavevsky: Kornilovsk\ Shock Inf. Regt, Partizanskv Inf. Regt. (scout) Battalion. 2nd Artillen Battery); Cavalry Bde ((ien.

Regt, Cherkessk\ Ca\. Regt, Kubanskv Cav. Demi-Regiment; i u se artillen' battery).

e 1918 a strong contingent under Colonel Dro/dovskv joined and further reorganisation took place: 1st Inf. Div. ((¿en. 'in 26 june, Ka/anovich); 2nd Inf. Div. ((¿en. Borovskv): 3rd ( ol. Drozdovskv); 1st and 2nd Plastoon Bus.: 1st Cav. Div. (Gen. lerGen. Wrangel); 1st Kuban Cav. Bde (later a division) ((¿en. : 2nd Kuban (¿ossack Div. ((¿en. l lagav); Kuban Cossack Bde S Nino, from July 1918). In all, these forces comprised 9,000 and 3,000 cavalry, fco November 1918 the Allies succeeded in supplying regular proth e White Armies, mainlv through the Blac k Sea port of - isk. This made it possible to organise mam new units, though V th the help of conscription. Thousands of Kuban Cossacks also e Whites, bringing the Army's strength to 35,000 men by i 1918, and to 100,000 by December. v. ember 1918 the Volunteer Army's structure was as follows; 1st ■ ips (Gen. Ka/anovich; later (¿en. Kutepov); 2nd Arim Corps Borovsky); 3rd Army Corps (Gen. Lyakhov; from March 1919, N illing); 1st Cavaln Corps ((¿en. Wrangel); plus several inde-( avalry and infantrv brigades and battalions, following vear (8 January 1919) saw the creation of the Armed : the South of Russia (AKSR), which encompassed many earlier ms. I'lie Volunteer Armv was renamed the Caucasian Volunteer id now included the 1st and 3rd Army Corps and 1st and 2nd ( avalry Corps. The original title was restored in Mav 1919. The

Russian Civil War Shkuro Wolves
Afrikan Bogayevsky, last Ataman of the Don Cossack Host, 1919. He wears Russian field uniform with, at his neck, the Order of St Vladimir 3rd Class and, on his left breast, the Cross of St George and the medal for the Ice March (or 1st Kuban March).
Kornilov Regiment Images
Officers of the Kornilov Shock Division, 19Z0. The senior commander, Maj.Gen. Skoblin, is seated next to the regimental chaplain, Leonid Rosanov. Behind them stand (left to right) Lt.Col. Chelyadinov, regimental adjutant Capt. Kopetsky and Col. Gordiyenko.

army's composition was then: 1st Army Corps (Gen. Kutepov); 2nd Army Corps (Gen. Promtov; then Gen. Slushov); 5th Cav. Corps ((¿en. Yuzefovitch); 3rd Kuban Cav. Corps (Gen. Shkuro); and Kiev Army Group (Gen. Bredov) - 50,000 men by September 1919. By that time several units of the Tsarist Army had sided with tin- Whites. Among them were the 13th, 15th and 34th Inf. Divs.J and the 80th Kabardinsky, 83rd Samurskv and 13th Belozerskv Inf. Regiments.

Besides the Volunteer Army, the AFSR consisted of several prev iously independent formations: the Army of the Don; the Crimean-Azov Army; the Forces of the Northern Caucasus; and the Army of Turkestan. In January 1919 it numbered 51,000 infantry, 34,000 cavalry, 204 guns, 682 machine-guns and six armoured trains. Bv July 1919 it had grown to 104,000 infantry, 56,000 cavalry, 600 guns. 1,500 machine-guns, 19 aircraft, 34 armoured trains, one cruiser, five destroyers, four submarines and 20 gunboats.

By October 1919, after heavy losses and the transfer of units to other armies, the army's strength fell to 20,000. In December 1919 the army's units were amalgamated to form the Detached Volunteer Corps - a force of 10,000 men. In April 1920 Denikin, commander-in-chief of the AFSR, delegated all authority to Wrangel, who took command of the so-called 'Russian Army', which included all units remaining from the AFSR after its defeat.

The most common type of insignia of the Volunteer Army (and of the AFSR) was a downward pointing chevron in national colours (white-blue-red) worn on the left sleeve. Various badges and embroidered designs on this chevron served to differentiate units. For example, a wolf 's head badge was worn by Shkuro's cavalrymen, while a picture of an armoured train was worn by some armoured train crews.

The so-called 'Colourful' (Twetniye) units were named after generals Kornilov, Markov. Alexeyev and Drozdovsky. These units, which included infantry, cavalry and artillery, had their own colourful uniforms and insignia, which were a great contrast to the dull khaki of most White units.

The Kornilovsky units wore a black gymnasterka and breeches. These were piped white on the collar, breast and pocket flaps, cuffs, and outside trouser seams. Caps had a red crown and a black band, both piped white, and were peaked for officers and peakless for rank-and-file. Shoulder-boards were half red, half black. The uniform of Markovskv units was almost identical, except that the crown of the cap was white-piped-black and shoulder-boards were predominantly black. Alexevcvskv units wore the same black or white uniforms, but facings were light blue. The cap had a white crown, piped in light blue, and a light blue capband piped in white. Drozdovsky units had no black uniforms, preferring khaki frymnasterkas without piping and grey-blue breeches piped red.

•> had a crimson crown piped white and ipband piped black.

they had grown from regiments into

• only the original 'Colourful' regiments 1 truly colourful; the other units of the

• were usually clad in Russian or British iforms. If time permitted, the khaki gym-were sometimes given coloured piping, regiments only the 1st or Officers' corn-

had coloured capbands and :-boards.

til members of the 'Colourful' regiments specified uniform, and many different «ions of gymnasterka and breeches were i rule Kornilov units did not wear white ■has and Markov units avoided blue - Artillery and cavalry units belonging to if divisions usually had different combi-of colours on their caps and boards. Officers often donned long cherkeska tunics and tall papakha hats of white fur with the top in regimental

African Bogayevsky

Commander of the Drozdovsky Rifle Division Maj.Gen. Anton Turkul, 1920. One of the youngest White generals, he was renowned for his bravery and brutality. He wears the traditional Drozdovsky peaked cap with crimson crown and white band, khaki gymnasterka with white piping on breast and cuffs, and crimson shoulder-boards with black braid and white piping.

Commander of the Drozdovsky Rifle Division Maj.Gen. Anton Turkul, 1920. One of the youngest White generals, he was renowned for his bravery and brutality. He wears the traditional Drozdovsky peaked cap with crimson crown and white band, khaki gymnasterka with white piping on breast and cuffs, and crimson shoulder-boards with black braid and white piping.

'Colourful' units worthy of note the Composite Rifle Regiment and the der-in-chief's Orderly Squadron. The tad a cap with a crimson crown piped crimson capband, crimson shoulder-md silver buttons (crimson and silver : traditional colours of Russian rifle regiments); the latter had a i light green crown which was piped white, and a white capband Jit green, white shoulder-boards with light green lace and silver

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