The North Western Army

(x>mmanders-in-( .liief: Maj.Gen. Rod/ianko (Jul) to October I919) i h n.-of-Infantrv Yudenich (October to November 1919) Maj.Gen. Glazenappe (November 1919 to January 1920)

■i i 19 June 1919,on the basis of the Northern Corps, it was offi-h < d the 'North-Western Army' on 7 July 1919 and consisted

Nestor Makhno

Fyodor Shuss, chief cavalry commander of the Ukrainian Peasants' Insurgent Army and the right-hand man of the army's commander, Nestor Makhno, 1919. As a former sailor he still wears his old beskozirka peakless cap. The red sash was a typical feature in Makhno's army, as was the carrying of an enormous quantity of weapons of different kinds. The long hair, unusual in this period, was a symbol of anarchy.

Fyodor Shuss, chief cavalry commander of the Ukrainian Peasants' Insurgent Army and the right-hand man of the army's commander, Nestor Makhno, 1919. As a former sailor he still wears his old beskozirka peakless cap. The red sash was a typical feature in Makhno's army, as was the carrying of an enormous quantity of weapons of different kinds. The long hair, unusual in this period, was a symbol of anarchy.

initially of two corps: l st Inf. ('.orps (2nd and 3rd Int. Divs.); and 2nd Inf. (:orps (l st and lth I ill . l)i\ isions).

Bv August 1919 the North-Western Armv, generoush supplied bv the Allies, had expanded to three corps: 1st Corps (2nd and 3rd Inf. Divisions - including the Vvatskv. Volinskv and Danilovskv Inf. Regis); 2nd Corps (4th and 6th Inf. Divs.); and 3rd Corps (1st and 5th Inf. Divisions). All in. tlie armv now included 26 infantrv regiments and two cavalry regiments, plus smaller detachments, and numbered 17,800 infantrv, 700 cavalry, 500 machine-guns, 57 artillery pieces, four armoured trains, six tanks and six aircraft.

Bv September 1919 the paper strength of the North-Western Anm was 101,648 men. though contemporaries estimated its true strength at 56,600, with onlv 27.000 actually under arms. The North-Western Armv was destroyed bv the Reds in October and November 1919. Survivors escaped to Estonia, where tliev wen-disarmed and interned. The army was officially disbanded on 22 anuarv 1920.

Uniforms in north-west Russia

The main insignia of the North-Western Armv was a cloth sleeve badge consisting of a broad white-blue-red chevron, pointing upwards, with a broad white cross partly enclosed bv the chevron.

In the early days old Russian uniforms, often very shabby, were worn by all men, but in August-September 1919 Britain supplied 40,000 uniforms. These were worn with Russian shoulder-boards and, when available, with Russian buttons. Some troops, such as Prince I.iven's 'Russian Anm'. wore German uniforms, including (¿ennan 1916 model helmets. These 'Liventsv', who were mostly former Russian guardsmen, also wore the German Feldnnitze with a skv blue band. Their weapons were, however, all Russian-made.

Some volunteer units had their own outfits, but civilian dress was widely worn: bv tradition recruits arrived in their worst clothing expecting to be issued with new uniforms. Even so, most volunteer detachments soon improvised their own insignia. For example, the Count Keller Corps and Colonel Vvrgolich Corps had an eight-pointed white cross stitched to the left sleeve below the elbow. The Colonel Dibitch Detachment had its own metal badge - a star covered bv crossed swords. I.utzev's machine-gun team had a triangular shield badge with the letter 'L' above a mac hine-gun.

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