Boys this will be short but desperate

We now know how Civil War armies were organised, the tactics they used and how to apply the rules of scale to reproduce these armies on a wargames table. Now we must study how our wargame armies will move and fight on the table top. As in the previous chapters, we take the real life data, or as close to it as we can get, and scale it down.

Movement

The US Drill Manual for our period states infantry columns could move at 70 yards per minute in common time, 85 yards quick time, and 110 yards double quick time. The latter would have been used mainly for advancing reserves in column to a point of danger and for charges, so we restrict this speed to columns and charging infantry. Infantry in line would normally advance at common time, unless charging to close with the enemy. This was a rare occurrence in the Civil War and mostly the infantry advanced more slowly, stopping periodically to fire. Because it is more difficult to maintain formation in line than in column, common time for line is estimated at 60 yards a minute. Skirmishers would move quickly without regard to formation, so we can use quick time for them at all times, double quick time if running back to the main body to escape attack.

Multiplying yards per minute by the 2'/4 minute game move we get: common time, 60 x 2'/i = 150 mm per game move; quick time, 85 x 2)4 =

"Confederate General Strahl at the battle of Franklin.

212, say 225 mm per game move: double quick time, 110 x 2Vi = 275 mm per game move.

Charges can only be made for the final move which results in a mêlée. Double quick time should be restricted to two moves, followed by one move at common time.

Cavalry had six speeds: walk, 4mph; slow trot, 6mph; manoeuvring trot, 8mph; alternate trot and walk, 5mph; manoeuvring gallop, 12mph; full gallop, 16mph. For the wargame these can be reduced to cavalry in line moving at the walk of 120 yards per minute ( x 2'A minutes = 300 mm per move) with a bonus when making a charge. The full gallop was usually employed only for the last 50 yards of a charge so in a 2 Vi-minute move we have 2 x 120 + V4 minute at 480 yards, giving a total charge move of 480 yards, say 475 mm. Column would move slightly faster than line, so we take the alternate trot and walk of 5mph, or 146 yards per minute, x2!4 = 365 yards, say 375 mm.

Field artillery rode their guns and caissons into battle, while in the light batteries every man had his own mount. This meant light batteries could move at a similar rate to cavalry in column, 375 mm. Field artillery would have been slightly slower, the cavalry line speed of 300 mm. and heavy batteries slightly slower still, say 250 mm.

Infantry firing

The US Army regulations of 1860 specified a trained soldier should be able to fire three aimed shots per minute —this being with the muzzle-loading smooth-bore musket in general use at that time. As our game move equals 2 'A minutes, this means a trained soldier armed with such a musket should be able to fire, say, seven times per move. However, not all soldiers were trained when they went into battle and sometimes even trained men behaved erratically when under fire for the first time. After Gettysburg, for example, of some 37,000 muskets salvaged from the battlefield, 18,000 had been loaded twice (or more) without being fired, showing that in the frenzy of battle many men had forgotten their drill. From these figures it has been estimated that the firing of 35 per cent of the troops engaged in the battle was ineffective! Another common mistake was to forget to remove the ramrod after reloading, thereby discharging it at the enemy and preventing further reloading, at least for some time.

It can be seen, therefore, that only veteran troops were likely to fire at top speed; others would perhaps average only half the veterans' speed. To achieve this distinction between various regiments, my units are divided into veterans, experienced troops or recruits. The percentage of hits likely to be scored in a set time —such as our game move — are set out in table form in the rules chapter and it is necessary only to consult these tables to determine how many casualties are inflicted within each game move. The tables take into consideration known percentages of hits by volley firing at various ranges, and allow for varying percentages of such hits depending on the quality of the troops, the number of men firing, and the type of weapon being used. The performances of the real weapons are listed overleaf for comparison with the tables.

Infantry fire-fights were most often decided by the morale of a unit and casualties were roughly equal when the approximate same number of men and type of weapon were involved. The firing tables, with their standard rates of casualties, emphasise the importance of morale and at the same time eradicate the unpredictability of results obtained with dice and cards. Because the tables can be easily consulted (I paste them on postcards) the game is also speeded up, while the inclusion of many ranges, instead of the customary three or four, means there are fewer 'hard lines' such as where firing at a range of 150 mm kills two figures, but at 151 mm kills only one.

At the outbreak of war both sides

An ACW game seen from the Confederate side, with, on the left Federals attacking a farm, on the right a Confederate brigade launching an attack against another farm. Both sides have avoided an advance across the open centre, the Federals having advanced from the cover of a wood, the Confederates from behind a hill.

An ACW game seen from the Confederate side, with, on the left Federals attacking a farm, on the right a Confederate brigade launching an attack against another farm. Both sides have avoided an advance across the open centre, the Federals having advanced from the cover of a wood, the Confederates from behind a hill.

Infantry weapons

Weapon

US Percussion M1842 muzzle-loading smooth-bore Springfield M1861 muzzle-loading rifle Enfield muzzle-loading rifle*

Remington (Zouave) M1862 muzzle-loading rifle Sharps breech-loading rifle M1863 Spencer breech-loading rifle

Rounds Range in yards Remarks per Max minute

Henry breech-loading rifle*

8 16

Effective

Battle

1,000 500

1,100 500

1,200 600

1,800 600

1,800 600

250 300

350 350

1,800 600 350

Standard weapon in 1st months of the war.

Most common weapon on both sides. 2nd most common, more accurate than Springfield 3rd most popular, more accurate than Springfield. Issued to US sharpshooters 1863. Union troops only. Those captured by CSA had limited use as CSA had no means of manufacturing the ammo.

Faster than Spencer but more likely to jam.

•Omitted from firing tables for simplification.

Infantry fire-fight for possession of the Confederate farm. Artillery is being advanced to support the Federal infantry, who have the disadvantage of being in the open.

Infantry fire-fight for possession of the Confederate farm. Artillery is being advanced to support the Federal infantry, who have the disadvantage of being in the open.

were armed mainly with muzzle-loading smooth-bore muskets, but by the autumn of 1862 the Union Army was equipped with muzzle-loading rifles and the CSA managed to equip its infantry with rifles at approximately the same rate, either by capture, import or manufacture. Production of breech-loading rifles for the US Army was begun in 1862 but their distribution was extremely limited in 1863 and even in May 1864, at The Wilderness, Grant had only 11 regiments armed with the Spencer repeating rifle—about three per cent of his army. Not until late 1864 should wargame Union armies have repeaters, and then only one or two regiments should be armed with this weapon.

It may be assumed that in 1861 the Confederacy's infantry weapons were inferior to those of the Union troops; perhaps 85 per cent smooth-bores to 15 per cent rifles, against the Union's 75-25 per cent. In 1862 there should be approximate equality with 50 per cent rifles, and in 1863 with 100 per cent rifles. The Confederacy's infantry weapons would be inferior again in 1864-5 as the US Army began receiving repeating rifles in larger numbers. Elite regiments tend to receive the best weapons, Springfields and Enfields always remain the most numerous weapons, and Zouave regiments would have the Remington.

Cavalry firing

Cavalry was armed with sabre and revolver at the beginning of the war and at least two squadrons (or companies) in each regiment also had muzzle-loading carbines or rifles. By early 1863 all cavalry was equipped with carbines and from 1864 there was a gradual switch to breech-loading repeaters in the Federal Army. CSA cavalry relied on the Enfield carbine with its greater range and accuracy. Cavalry are not allowed to fire carbines or rifles while mounted in wargames, but when dismounted they fire as infantry. The inferiority of the carbine to the infantry weapons shows in the cavalry weapons table and is reflected in cavalry firing tables.

Sabre fighting was mostly abandoned after the first two years of the war—earlier in the western theatre— though the US cavalry continued to carry their sabres. Most cavalry carried two revolvers for close quarters fighting, the Confederates often having four or two and a double-barrelled shotgun. The latter would only stop a man at about 15 yards.

The revolvers were mostly Colts, Remingtons and Starrs, all of which

Cavalry weapons

Weapon

Enfield muzzle-loading rifled carbine

Spencer breech-loading rifled carbine

Rounds per minute

Sharps M1859& M1863 breech-loading rifled carbine*

Burnside breech- about loading rifled carbine* 8

Ranges in yards Effect- Battle tive

500 300

Remarks

Widely used by both sides early in war. Preferred by CSA even late in war because of accuracy and rugged reliability.

Best cavalry arm of the war. Decisive in many cavalry actions. 2nd only to Spencer.

3rd most popular.

'Omitted from firing tables for simplication.

On the opposite flank the Confederate attack has dosed up to the Federal farm and has broken the regiment to the right of the farm (seen routing). Federal cavalry has charged in support and are seen just after firing and before the melee. Note gaps created by cavalry firing.

Next phase of the cavalry fight: in the background some Confederates have ridden through the Federals, been hit by infantry fire, and are now charging back into the mêlée. In the foreground the second half of the CSA regiment has advanced to engage those Federals who have penetrated the first line.

Next phase of the cavalry fight: in the background some Confederates have ridden through the Federals, been hit by infantry fire, and are now charging back into the mêlée. In the foreground the second half of the CSA regiment has advanced to engage those Federals who have penetrated the first line.

held five rounds (six if placing one under the hammer) and had a rate of fire of 15 rounds a minute. However, reloading in the saddle during a mêlée was impracticable and therefore we only allow the cavalry to fire for the number of moves corresponding to the number of revolvers carried. Thus the US cavalry generally had a sabre and two revolvers and can fire for two moves and must then spend a move reloading. CSA cavalry with two revolvers and a shotgun, or four revolvers, may fire for four moves and then spend two moves reloading.

The maximum range of the revolvers was 300 yards, but effective range was only 50 yards with a 25 yard accurate battle range. As the revolvers will only be used in a charge or mêlée, firing is allowed only at the 25 mm range, ie just before the two sides meet. This applies to the shotgun also.

One other cavalry weapon should be mentioned —the lance! This was

Maximum effective ranges*

Artillery

Shot

Shell

piece

Min

Max

6pdr

1,000

250

800

Napoleon

smooth-bore

12pdr

1,200

250

900

Napoleon

smooth-bore

12pdr

2,000

Whitworth

rifle

3" Rodman

1,800

250

1,400

rifle

20pdr

1,900

250

1,400

Parrott rifle

30pdr

2,200

250

1,600

Parrott rifle

12pdr

1,070

150

750

smooth-bore

howitzer

24pdr

1,300

300

800

howitzer

32pdr

1,500

500

900

howitzer

'All at approximately 5 degree elevation

'All at approximately 5 degree elevation carried by the 6th Pennsylvania (Rush's Lancers) until 1863 and possibly by the 26th Texas and other units named as lancers. However, it was never used in any large combat and it is not realistic to include lancers in your army, no matter how dramatic they may look: it was not their kind of war!

Indians firing

The Indians of both sides carried a wide range of weapons: bows, tomahawks, lances or spears, and sometimes issue sabres, revolvers and muskets. The latter were of poor quality. CSA Indian cavalry also liked the shotgun.

Indians rarely opened fire at long ranges in the pre- and post-war Indian wars, and 100-150 yards was a normal range for them to commence firing. It is best therefore to arm all Indian infantry with the early smooth-bore muzzle-loaders. Dismounted cavalry also have this firearm. For mounted firing,

Canister Remarks

250 Used mainly by CSA in

1861. Replaced as soon as possible by 12pdror3-inch rifle.

300 Mostpopularsmooth-

bore. Reliable and effective.

300 Used by CSA. Exception ally accurate.

300 From 1863. Popularwith

Union Army, favourite of their light batteries.

300 The basic piece, used by both sides.

300 Used by heavy (reserve)

batteries.

300 300

Smooth Boy Skimpy Short Shorts

The Parrott rifle.

The Parrott rifle.

Indians have an edged weapon and one revolver, so may only fire one move and must then spend half a move reloading. However, an allowance for skill with the edged weapon makes them as good as US cavalry veterans. For bows see rules summary.

Artillery firing

The main artillery pieces used from 1862 were: US Army 3" Rodman and 20pdr Parrott rifles, and 12pdr Napoleon smooth-bore; CSA 12pdr Napoleon smooth-bore and 12pdr Whitworth rifle in equal proportions, and the20pdr Parrott rifle. By 1863 both armies usually had between a third and half of their pieces 3-inch or 20pdr rifles, the remainder smooth-bores. Heavier batteries can be represented by the 30pdr Parrott for both sides if required.

It is a matter of choice whether to

Federal artillery firing ball against the advance on their left flank prior to the cavalry mêlée. The shot is on target (5 or 6 on deviation device), and the player has guessed the correct range, so the shot will take two men from the centre of the regiment.

include howitzer batteries in your army. The scaling down does not permit many batteries and in a small army you will find the howitzer battery is never where you need it, whilst you could desperately use another smooth-bore one in its place!

Both rifles and smooth-bores could fire shot, shell and canister. (The term shell is used here for the projectile which fragmented and for spherical case, which scattered musket balls.) The shot relied on its speed and weight for cutting down men, and was devastating amongst closely packed troops. It did not hit the ground and stop dead, but rolled or bounced for some distance. The rules use this roll for assessing casualties. The player estimates the range to his target, measures that distance (and no more), then takes all figures within the roll length along the line of fire, the latter being determined by a deviation device. Whether a hit or miss is scored depends largely on the player's skill at estimating ranges, but once a shot has been fired at a stationary target the range is known. Units to the rear of the target may also be hit by the rolling cannonball. Each gun may fire one shot per move. Because muddy ground prevented the ball from bouncing and reduced the roll, the roll length is reduced by half if the ground is muddy.

Solid shot was ineffective against

CSA Infantry regiment in line

125 mm frontage

Fig 5 NJK

Artillery line of fire device. A dice throw indicates whether the shot goes on target (5 or 6), to the left (7 or 2) or to the right (3 or 4.) The roll of the cannonball takes effect along this line from the range estimated by the player.

entrenched infantry from the range necessary to protect gunners from the infantry's rifles, and therefore shell came to be used more and more in the second half of the war. It was also used as long-range canister against infantry attacks, and statistics show that in fact spherical case was no more effective

Scatter device for shell / spherical case, using transparent material such as Perspex. 50 per cent of the figures within the appropriate circle are removed; dice score of 4, 5 or 6 to save officers.

Federal advance on the CSA left flank receiving shell. Range correct, deviation of shot to left and scatter device indicates casualties.

than shot unless used for such plunging fire. Assuming shell is always fired with a high trajectory in wargames, we need a device to show the scatter of the projectile. Ranging and deviation of line of fire are as shot, and again all guns fire once per move.

Another device is needed to show the scatter of canister, in this case tapering off after the half-way mark because of the lessening effect of canister after that point. Canister could be fired twice as fast as other projectiles by the smooth-bores, so half the figures within the device are removed if it is a rifled piece firing (throw 4, 5 or 6 on a dice to save officers) but all the figures for smoothbores.

The range and type of ammunition being fired must be written in the orders before firing commences. If it is not, then the range and ammunition used for the last firing move must be used. If the gun has not fired before, then it loses its firing that move.

A word about comparative performance of rifles and smooth-bores. The rifle could out-range the smoothbore, hit harder and was more accurate, but there were problems with malfunctioning of ammunition or fouling of the rifling, which caused loss of accuracy. When firing shell, rifles also tended to drive the projectiles so deep into the ground that their burst was ineffective. At Bull Run General Imboden referred to his area as looking 'as though a drove of hogs had been rooting for potatoes.' These faults to a large extent neutralised the technical superiority of rifled guns, although they retained the advantage of longer range.

Smooth-bores were much less accurate, had a shorter range, but were rugged and reliable, and were murderous weapons at close range. Imboden claimed one battery of smooth-bores was worth two of rifles and many gunners agreed with him. Certainly at close range the smooth-bore was supreme.

For these reasons no advantage has been given to rifled pieces in the rules beyond their longer range, and this is perhaps balanced by the effect of smooth-bores at close range.

Batteries may only fire within the angle of their template, and if wishing to change front take a whole move to do so. This is because the guns need to be limbered up, the battery wheeled to the new angle—with the outer gun having to move a long distance, as wher. any formation wheels, then unlimbered again.

Canister device. The player firing is allowed to position the device to his best advantage.

~---- 50

~ It25

*-300

mm ■ ■ -H

Smooth Bores
CSA infantry arrive within range of canister. Eight figures are within the device, so four are removed, as it is a Federal rifled artillery piece firing. CSA smooth-bores would take all eight figures.

Counter-battery firing

A hit with shot may damage a gun or limber but as the models represent a battery it is not possible to 'destroy' a model gun or limber with one hit. However, the battery's firepower must be affected and therefore the casualties inflicted by that battery must be reduced: in a four-gun battery the loss of one gun would mean % casualties taken, loss of two guns V4 casualties taken, etc. In a six-gun battery the

On the CSA left the Federal artillery has come into action and silenced the CSA battery at the farm to allow the infantry to press home their attack.

same principle applies. Limbers destroyed mean the guns cannot be moved and it may become necessary, if moving a battery, to abandon a gun or guns for this reason. The same casualty percentage reduction applies to these batteries.

Hits by shell will kill crew members. Normal casualty rates apply, with the device, and it follows that if a four-gun battery loses a gunner (25 per cent casualties) it will no longer be able to man all guns efficiently and casualties inflicted by that battery should again be reduced by 25 per cent.

Indirect firing

Howitzers may fire 'blind' from behind cover but must have an observer of one figure capable of seeing the target and within 200 mm of the howitzer battery, ie one man every six yards in scale. The observer may serve more than one battery provided the batteries are side by side.

Machine-guns

Machine-guns were available to both sides during the Civil War but were seldom used due to problems of mobility and ammunition supply. The table shows known details of the various guns' performances and rules could be worked outfrom this data. I do not use machine-guns in my own games as they played a small part in the war and were limited to sieges, which do not transfer to the wargames table very well in this period.

Infantry mêlées

When infantry advance to engage in hand-to-hand fighting, both sides may fire at 100 mm (75 mm for smoothbores) as closing, those advancing losing 50 per cent of their total move to do so. Hand-to-hand combat then takes place between all figures in contact, ie base to base. Gaps in the lines are not closed up, but penetrated by the opponent's figures if wished to the full length of the move outstanding or until reaching another enemy figure. A dice is then thrown by each player for each pair of figures in contact, the highest scorer being the winner. Add one to the scores of veterans and all Indians, deduct one from that of

Machine-guns Weapon Ammo

Billinghurst Requa Battery gun Agar machine-gun

.58 cal

.58 cal

Rounds per min

7 volleys of 25 shots 120

Williams 1 pound machine-gun shell or canister

Range

Over 1,000 yds

Unknown Deadly at 800 yds

Up to 2,000 yds

First used in action Built late 1861

29/3/1862

31/5/1862

Remarks

Loose powder used and hazards of sparks & rain. US weapon; 2 taken by CSA June 1862. Unpopular because of unreliability.

CSA weapon. 42 guns in 7 batteries. Very reliable but ammo problems restricted use.

Vandenberg volley gun

Gatling machine-gun

Various — musket

.58 cal 250

90% hits at 100 yds

12 purchased by General Butler in 1864; Hancock also 12, Porter 1. Not very accurate. Improved M1865 too late for Civil War.

On the CSA right the Federal cavalry is finished off. Federal infantry in the farm has been driven off by musketry but the artillery remains in action, though depleted.

Vandenberg Volley Gun

recruits. Nothing happens if there is a draw. Winners advance into the spaces left by the removed losers.

If attacking unformed infantry, or infantry in the flank or from the rear, the dice scores of the attackers are doubled for the first move.

These are more confused but use the same principle of individual figure combats. First of all it is essential every unit has recorded its weapon potential: I find it easiest to standardise: sabre and two revolvers for Federal cavalry, four revolvers for Confederate cavalry, a revolver and edged weapon for Indians.

Cavalry fired their weapons just before contact, at point-blank range, getting off a large number of shots but firing at speed from horseback. It is assumed 50 per cent of the firing will be effective under these conditions. Therefore, advance to within 25 mm of the enemy, dice for each figure firing: 4, 5 or 6 removes the enemy figure directly ahead and within 25 mm.

As a result of this firing there may now be a gap, through which the victor continues; a double gap with both figures dead; or no gap at all. If there is a double gap, reserves may close up if desired. Where the victor rides through a gap, he continues to the end of his outstanding move, allowing a deduction for reining up to turn round and prepare to repeat the manoeuvre. If there is no gap the two figures still facing each other now use edged weapons (US and Indians) or clubbed weapons (CSA). Again dice, highest score wins, as in infantry mêlées. Where edged weapons are successful the loser is removed: where clubbed weapons are successful the loser is dismounted and may be taken prisoner if his unit loses the mêlée, or remount if it wins. Veterans and Indians add one, recruits deduct two as for infantry

The CSA advance on the right has been successful but on the opposite flank the rebels are hard pressed. Now the Federals begin a counter-attack, aimed at isolating the CSA right. We must leave the game there, undecided, but with the numerically inferior Confederate forces under strong pressure.

The CSA advance on the right has been successful but on the opposite flank the rebels are hard pressed. Now the Federals begin a counter-attack, aimed at isolating the CSA right. We must leave the game there, undecided, but with the numerically inferior Confederate forces under strong pressure.

mêlées. Again, the winner of the combat will ride through to rein up with the remainder of his unit. At this stage Indians are usually better off withdrawing, as their weapons are unloaded.

If the manoeuvre is repeated, at the end of the second round of mêlée US cavalry will have their weapons unloaded and be at a disadvantage to Confederate cavalry, who still have two moves with loaded weapons. This tends to cause cavalry mêlées to be restricted to one or two moves, as they should be, and it is always advisable for the US player to keep back one move of loaded weapons rather than risk being caught with weapons unloaded for a further two moves by the CSA cavalry. Again, this causes US cavalry tactics to be rather cautious, as they were until they heavily outnumbered the Confederate cavalry in the last year of the war.

Cavalry charging unformed infantry or gunners fire at 25 mm, then mêlée with sabre or clubbed weapon with the nearest figure, doubling their dice score for the first move.

After all mêlées, both infantry and cavalry, all units need a full move to rally and reform. Reloading may also be carried out during this move.

Morale

Possibly the most important part of any rules is Morale; how the troops react to various situations on the wargames table. The most common type of morale rules require constant consultation of charts and a lengthy process of addition and subtraction to arrive at a morale value. This method is very efficient (examples of variations on the method may be found in any rules or books on wargaming) but even veteran players have to consult the charts for every morale check and this does slow down the game.

Personally I prefer a much simpler system based on figure value and in practice, during countless games, I have found this to often have almost identical results to the complicated charts, and in some cases it has actually proved more realistic —mainly because it dispenses with the unpredictability of dice.

The basis of my system is that every American Civil War Wargaming

Cavalry mêlée viewed from the Federal side. In the foreground are men of the CSA front rank who have killed their opponents, passed through the Federal Une, and are reining round to repeat the attack. A single Federal figure has pierced the rebel Une, only to run into infantry fire. In the background the CSA have again created a gap and eventually the Federal cavalry was utterly defeated.

officer figure has a points value of 4, every sergeant 3, every corporal 2, and every private 1. (This can be simplified by giving values only to officers and privates.) The result is a points or morale value as shown below. Here can instantly be seen the greater morale value of the CSA infantry regiments over all Federal infantry except Wisconsin regiments, which is as it should be.

US cavalry battalion-12 figs: 10 privates, 1 corporal, 1 sergeant + 2 officers = 23 points; US Sharpshooters—8 figs: 6 privates, 1 corporal, 1 sergeant + 1 officer = 15 points; US Regular regiments—16 figs: 14 privates, 1 corporal, 1 sergeant + 2 officers = 27 points; Wisconsin regiments—20 figs: 16 privates, 2 corporals, 2 sergeants + 2 officers = 34 points; US volunteers and militia —15 figs: 12 privates, 2 corporals, 1 sergeant, + 2 officers = 27 points; US Indian units—15 figs.*

CSA cavalry regiments—20 figs: 16 privates, 2 corporals, 2 sergeants + 2 officers = 34 points; CSA infantry regiments—20 figs: 16 privates, 2

corporals, 2 sergeants + 2 officers = 34 points; CSA Indian units—10 figs.*

No allowance is made in this system for Negro troops, as on all occasions studied their value was equal to that of white troops.

Recruits and experienced troops break and run at double quick time when their morale value reaches the number indicated in the morale table. Veterans also break but retire in good order at common time. The breaking values set out in this table are based on 33 '/j per cent losses for recruit units, 50 per cent losses for experienced units, and 66% per cent losses for veterans. Although Indians are classed as veterans for mêlées, here they are classed as recruits, as they could not be expected to stand and endure a heavier percentage of casualites.

•Contrary to popular belief. Indians did not always run away the instant a chief was killed, but would fight until a certain proportion decided to quit, when the rest would follow. Therefore, the morale value takes no account of the rank of individuals.

The percentages themselves are based roughly on known proportions of losses in battle. For example, in World War 2 losses of ten per cent were barely tolerable yet in the Civil War units frequently lost 50 per cent of their strength in one battle—not because their time in action was prolonged but simply because firepower had increased so much—and occasionally regiments lost in the region of 80 per cent. (At Antietam the 1st Texas lost 82.3 per cent; at Gettysburg the 1st Minnesota 82 per cent; at Bull Run the 21st Georgia 76 per cent; and again at

Gettysburg the 141st Pennsylvania 75.7 per cent.)

Regiments do not necessarily lose the percentage of men shown above before breaking, as the loss of officers and NCOs has a drastic effect on morale, and therefore with this system it is possible to have a numerically strong regiment whose morale fails because of lack of leaders.

Artillery are considered to remain in action unless ordered to withdraw. In practice a player will almost always move his guns if they are suffering heavy casualties, so as to preserve

A depleted Federal Zouave regiment (in light blue greatcoats) breaks and runs from the firing line. A general attempts to rally them to plug the gap.

Moraletable

Type of unit

Morale

value

US cavalry battalions

23

US sharpshooters

15

US Regular infantry

27

Wisconsin regiments

34

US vols & militia

27

US Indian units

15

CSA cavalry regiments

34

CSA infantry regiments

34

CSA Indian units

10

Value at which units break Veterans Experienced Recruits

8

11

15

5

8

10

9

14

18

12

17

22

9

14

18

10

12

17

22

12

17

22

_

7

what firepower they have left and if possible use them again from a more sheltered spot.

Retreat continues for all units until they leave the table, unless a general officer joins them, when a dice may be thrown. For CSA troops a 5 or 6 will rally recruits, 4, 5 or 6 rally experienced troops, and 3, 4, 5 or 6 rally veterans. Union troops require a 5 or 6 to rally recruits, 4, 5 or 6 to rally experienced troops or veterans. This reflects the better leadership of Confederate forces and gives them a slight edge to counter numerical inferiority.

All Indians may be rallied by a throw of 3, 4, 5 or 6 in any move, without the presence of a general. This counters their low breaking point and reflects their hit-and-run tactics.

If a general fails to rally a unit he may remain with it, attempting to rally each move until the unit leaves the table. However, the general is not obliged to leave the table with it. Likewise, a general does not have to remain with a unit he has rallied.

Those units which have been rallied act as normal unless coming under fire, when they must throw a 4, 5 or 6 to stay for every move under fire. If they fail to obtain this score, they begin to retreat again and fresh attempts must be made to rally them.

Because of the poor chances of holding broken troops, especially recruits, it will be found best to allow them to leave the table except in the case of regiments which are numerically strong but whose morale has failed due to loss of leaders. Here a general may decide to remain with the unit permanently, and this is often where general officer casualties occur. It will also be found under this system that it pays a player to advance fresh regiments through his depleted ones after an attack, and retire the latter to the second line where they will continue to play a significant part in the battle, rather than drive a regiment on until it is utterly shattered.

Officers and NCOs will become casualties in mêlées and as a result of artillery fire. Such casualties are haphazard. There is no provision for such casualties to be taken during infantry firing but if desired a dice can be thrown for each move that a unit under fire loses three men or more. A throw of six removes an officer or NCO. In practice few officer or NCO casualties will be taken this way and it is an unnecessary complication, for there is a sufficient proportion of officers and NCOs killed by artillery fire and mêlées to have their required effect.

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