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This photograph re-emphasizes the wide variety of handguns in use, with Colt again predominating, but with many other less-well-known companies also represented. The revolver belonging to Col. Julius W. Adams (10) is of particular interest since the owner has recorded his personal battle honors on the butt. Visible here are Yorktown, Williamsburgh, Fair Oaks, Seven Days, South Mountain, and Antietam, and there are more on the other side. The pristine condition of the encased Colt Model 1849 Pocket revolver (4) and its accessories bespeaks an owner who was careful and neat in his habits. The Pettengill (5) and Perrin (16) revolvers are unusual in that they lack combs.
Army had continuing access to the gunsmiths and the mass-production resources of the North, and used a wide variety of handguns. Most of these were government-issue, of which the various models by Colt and Remington were most prevalent. There were also many private purchases by officers seeking both to assert their individuality and also to ensure their personal survival. Some of the manufacturers whose products are seen here would continue in business down to the present day, including Colt, Remington, and Smith & Wesson, while others disappeared at the end of the Civil War, including companies such as Manhattan, Plant, Starr, and Uhlinger. The two Remington-Beals revolvers are of particular interest. Eliphalet Remington, a blacksmith, set up his gunmaking business in the 1850s and among his early products was a series of revolvers made to the design of a man named F. Beals, hence the name. Thus, these are among the very earliest products of this world-famous company.
STUART REID, born in Aberdeen in 1954, has maintained a lifelong interest in military history alongside various occupations including - among others - librarian, research technician for a North Sea diving company, and sergeant sniper in the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. His longstanding involvement in military re-enactment has broadened into work as a military advisor-cum-troop instructor for film companies. A prolific writer in recent years, he has contributed some half-dozen titles to Osprey's military series, and is also the author of Like Hungry Wolves, a definitive and highly praised analysis of the Culloden campaign.
With the arrival of the pontoons, Burnside crossed the river on December 11, despite fierce fire from Confederate snipers concealed in buildings along the city's river front. When the Confederates withdrew, Federal soldiers looted the town, from which the inhabitants had been evacuated. By December 13, Burnside was prepared to launch a two-pronged attack to drive Lee's forces from an imposing set of hills iust outside Fredericksburg. Unable to ford the Rappahannock River near the town, Burnside was forced - despite fierce sniper fire from the opposite bank - to construct pontoon bridges (above).
Johnston led 158 mounted riflemen from the Union 39th Missouri Infantry into town, led by the smoke from the burning train. Despite being unsure of the enemy numbers Johnston divided his force in two, leaving a small group to guard the town while he led the others in pursuit. When Anderson became aware of them he wiped them out in a carefully prepared ambush (derailed in Plate B , before galloping back into Centralia and killing the rest of Johnston's men. The Bushwhackers then disappeared into the thick woods of Howard County, and the trail was stone cold before Union troops gathered in sufficient strength to dare to patrol the area. Raids by Anderson's and other irregulars helped Price's campaign by drawing off troops that could have been used against his army. They disrupted mail, stalled riverboat service, and cut miles of telegraph wires, thus hampering the ability of far-flung Union militias to coordinate their actions.
I many others, officers took to carrying revolvers as being more effective than the traditional sword and considerably less bulky. But, since the C.S.A. was in no position to issue a standard handgun to all its officers, it then became a matter of personal taste and financial means to obtain a weapon which would express the owner's personality. In addition, to say that a weapon was foreign-made had a certain cachet and almost certainly meant that it was better made than if it had been produced by a hard-pressed Confederate gunsmith. The cased handgun is Beaumont-Adams 0.49 caliber revolver, produced by R. Adams Manufacturers of Fire Arms of all kinds of 76 King William Street, London, E. C. Adams had exhibited various prototype revolvers at the Great Exhibition of 1851, where the interest shown had been sufficient to encourage him to set up a gunmaking business, and he had quickly become successful. A purchaser of one of his original weapons was a Lieutenant Beaumont of the British...
The green forage caps and uniforms of Hiram Berdan's two regiments of sharpshooters made them unique in the Union forces during the American Civil War. They were elite regiments and the selection process to join as described by Lieutenant Colonel William M. Ripley in his book Vermont Riflemen in the War for the Union, was a tough one 'it was required that a recruit should possess a good moral character, a sound physical development and in other respects come within the usual requirements of the army regulations. It was required of them that before enlistment they should justify their claim to be called sharp shooters by such a public exhibition of their skill as should fairly entitle them to the name and warrant a reasonable expectation of usefulness in the
Like the Federals, the Confederate infantry officer had considerable latitude in selecting his uniform and accouterments, although the basic branch identification color was blue for infantry, the same as that in the Federal Army. Confederate officers of all branches did use strikingly different rank insignia, but their swords were, in many cases, copies of current Federal models, as were their handguns.
The ist Texas served in Fitzburgh Lee's Brigade it should not be confused with the other Partisan Rangers (5th North Carolina Cavalry), or with Companies 'F' and 'H' of the 2nd Texas Cavalry, both known as the Texas Mounted Riflemen. 39. C.S.A. a) Private, 26th Texas Cavalry (Debray's Mounted Riflemen). Xavier Blanchard Debray, a graduate of the French military academy of St Cyr, was in the French diplomatic service until his emigration to Texas in 1852. A newspaper publisher in San Antonio before the war, he served as Governor's A.D.C. until commissioned to raise a regiment in Bexar County, with himself as Colonel. The 26th Texas Cavalry, also known as Debray's Mounted Riflemen, was uniformed and armed in a typically French fashion, the regulation cavalry dress having green facings and piping, brass shoulder-scales, and brass numerals '26' on the collars of N.C.O.s and privates. Musicians wore the usual pattern of lacing on the breast, but in the unusual...
Lacking an adequate industrial base, the Confederate Ordnance Department was unable to supply weapons as sophisticated as the Sharps or Colt rifles to their sharpshooters. There were some Whitworth rifles already in service in the Confederate Army, but these were expensive and had to be imported through a blockade that was growing increasingly effective. Still, they were the weapon of choice for snipers, and, as they were essentially the same weight and size as the standard infantry rifled musket, they were easier to use and transport than the heavy target rifles that Federal snipers used. In fact, the 0.45 caliber Whitworth ammunition weighed less than the 0.577 Enfield ammunition carried by line infantrymen. The Kerr rifle, made by the London Armoury Company and invented by the company's superintendent, James Kerr, was a 0.44 caliber rifle that used a novel ratchet form of rifling and a quick twist The problems Confederates found with the Kerr was that it fouled more rapidly than...
A number of Virginia-raised cavalry units bore the title 'Sussex' as in many other cases, the lineage of volunteer companies is complicated for example, one corps of Sussex Cavalry (also known as the Sussex Jackson Avengers) was orginally Captain B. F. Winfield's company of the 16th Battalion Virginia Cavalry, later becoming Company 'D' of the 13 th Virginia Cavalry another Sussex Cavalry was Company 'H' of the 13th Virginia while Company 'C' of the 5th Virginia Cavalry was known as either the Sussex Light Dragoons or Sussex Cavalry. Both the 5th Virginia (Company 'E') and the 13th Virginia ('G') included companies known as Surry Cavalry, the latter originally forming part of the 16th Bn. Virginia Cavalry. The problem is further complicated by the existence of a corps known as the Sussex Riflemen (Company 'E', 16th Virginia Infantry)
The last months of the war around Petersburg, Virginia, saw Union and Confederate soldiers fighting from trenches. These Union troops are resting behind the trench lines before moving forward to resume fighting. Hundreds of soldiers died around Petersburg from artillery fire, snipers, and mass attacks on each armv's flanks.
The rifleman is armed with a custom-built, heavy-barrelled sniper's rifle, with brass telescopic sight running the length of the barrel, and a 'set' trigger. Used in small numbers, principally by the Federals, these weapons, in the hands of trained sharp shooters, produced feats of scarcely credible accuracy.
The HVO did little to avoid provoking such incidents, and a serious outburst of violence began in Travnik when a Muslim soldier fired on some HVO soldiers erecting a flag.11 Heavily armed soldiers from both sides prowled the streets of Travnik on the evening of April 8, and the conflict over the display of Croat flags continued the following day with armed clashes involving the HVO military police, the Vitezovi, and ABiH soldiers.12 The April 9 firing began when a group of Muslims attempted to tear down the flag at the Orijent Hotel. Warned to desist, they pressed on, and a small firefight ensued. There were no Croat casualties, but a number of Muslims were apparently killed or wounded. Following the firefight in Travnik, HVO military police reported the arrival in Travnik of five trucks and several other vehicles carrying mujahideen and members of the Green Legion from Zenica.13 The conflict continued until Easter Sunday, April 11, with numerous sniper and bombing incidents, arrests...
Regarding life in the trenches, an Alabama Confederate recalled that the heat was exessive sic , there was no protection from the rays of the sun the trench was so narrow that two men could scarcely pass abreast, and the fire of the enemy was without intermission. To make matters worse, the men were tormented by swarms of flies, lice, ticks, and chiggers, and suffered from the lack of good water near the front. Death sought them out in innumerable ways from sickness, accident, a sniper's bullet, or the burst of a mortar shell. This life in the trenches was awful, beyond description, a Confederate officer declared.
Compared to the conventional ironclad being built in Europe, and in the North, there is no question that the Confederate design was superior. The conventional ship, including the New Ironsides, was unarmored around the bow and stern, and, of course, had few guns pointing ahead and astern. The Confederate ships usually had only one gun pointing forward, but the powerful ram on the bow gave them a tremendous advantage. In adopting the low deck, visibility was improved, as it was feasible to build a low armored pilothouse atop the casemate.
The last months of the war around Petersburg, Virginia, saw Union and Confederate soldiers fighting from trenches. These Union troops are resting behind the trench lines before moving forward to resume fighting. Hundreds of soldiers died around Petersburg from artillery fire, snipers, and mass attacks on each army's flanks.
The severe casualties suffered by both sides at Antietam are replicated by most sets of commercial rules. Indeed, the bloodbaths produced by some rules are more reminiscent of 1914 However, thanks to the diligent work of John M. Priest, we have a better idea of casualty rates at Antietam than for most other Civil War battles. His almost minute-by-minute account allows us to extract some figures that reveal just how effective infantry firepower had become. Bearing in mind that few people were looking closely at their watches, so the timings are always approximate, we can examine a series of firefights in which the numbers of men involved and the duration of the combat are reasonably well known. Taking an average from the best documented musketry duels, in ten minutes' firing, 19 riflemen in every 100 scored a hit. Assuming the soldiers were firing 2 rounds per minute, that is a hit ratio of about 10 per cent. This may sound unduly high, but the average range was less than 50 yards....
Khan Pryde and General Steiner called a general ceasefire within their respective regions and eventually agreed on 9 plan that would end the Falcon Incursion. The world of Blair Atholl would remain jointly-held by the Falcons and the LAAF as something of a live fire training world, giving the Falcons a place where they could send their warriors to gain real combat experience. Though that agreement would mean that the LAAr troops on-world would constantly be threatened by the Jade Falcons, the world would at least remain something of a con trolled environment.
In the Wilderness, his unit performed well, and at the battle of Spotsylvania, he was cut down by a Confederate sniper because he stood exposed, surveying the battle. Sedgwick was a thoroughly capable and professional soldier who earned the respect of his peers and those he commanded. His death diminished the Union pool of good officers, and had it occurred earlier, it may have hurt the Union cause.
The difficulties with C3 in both the HVO Operative Zone Central Bosnia and the ABiH III Corps were in part the product of the low level of individual, unit, and specialist training. Training and discipline were weak in both armies except in the elite special purpose and military police units whose personnel apparently received extra training, were better armed, and exhibited a higher level of discipline and cohesion. The short duration of the Muslim-Croat conflict and the comparatively short existence of both the HVO and the ABiH, compounded by the exigencies of the war against the Bosnian Serb army, made the attainment of a high level of individual, unit, and specialist training all but impossible. Nevertheless, both the HVO and the ABiH attempted to provide at least rudimentary individual combat training for all personnel, and in some cases were able to offer officer training courses, specialist courses for engineers and snipers, and other forms of formal training. The HVO in...
Some ironclad cars were only partially armored. The Union ironclad seen here, hitched at the end of a train behind a USMRR boxcar, is based on a sketch in an 1862 edition of Harper's Weekly. The basis is a flatcar, roughly 32ft long the gun position has a low, inwards-slanting prow and sidewalls made of lengths of railroad track - T-rails (though actually the section was more like an I-beam) - bolted to a wooden superstructure, leaving the top and rear open. When under fire, the riflemen on board could crouch down for protection and act as sharpshooters. The artillery crew would be
A number of other symbolic or functional weapons saw very limited use in the armies of the English civil wars, including poleaxes, halberds, bills and blunderbusses. Standard muskets and carbines were not very accurate, but more expensive and accurate birding or fowling pieces were available and would be given to snipers to pick off specific targets, though this was more common in sieges than field engagements. Most of the bigger armies took with them a train of artillery, including very large, heavy and slow-moving cannon, though again these were more suited to sieges than battles. But other pieces were shorter, lighter and more mobile and these, typically firing iron balls weighing less than 10 pounds, might play a more substantial role in battle. Many of the major engagements opened with an artillery exchange, firing at a fairly sedate rate, as reloading was slow and complex. They made a great deal of noise and smoke and could inflict terrible injuries. There are plenty of gory...
Based on several eyewitness accounts, Makhno stood just under average height, had piercing grey-blue eyes, long, dark or chestnut hair, a snub nose with a prominent forehead, sometimes had a brown moustache, spoke with a high-pitched voice and was strongly built. Often he was seen with two ammunition belts crossed over his chest and two or more grenades suspended from his vestments, sometimes with a rifle, sometimes with a sabre, and usually with two or more handguns, usually Colt or Nagant revolvers and a Mauser 'broom-handle' automatic. He was considered a crack shot with the handguns and could serve artillery, a skill he required of all his immediate staff. Always a courageous fighter in the front ranks, he survived a dozen wounds.
That afternoon attack is remembered as Pickett's Charge. Thousands of Confederates ran directly at Union cannons and rows of riflemen. A huge number of these Southerners were killed, wounded, or captured. This disaster forced Lee to accept defeat. He ordered his army to retreat south on July 4. His fight with Meade was the largest battle ever fought in North America.
Private Gallaher was the personal courier to General J.E.B. Stuart. His butternut Confederate Army issue shell jacket was worn while a courier at the General's headquarters and on the battlefield. It is one of the few Confederate identified Courier Uniforms known to exist. Communication was of major importance between the Confederate Commanders both before and during the battle. The trust instilled into young Gallaher by his hard fighting commander must have been tremendous and well earned. Private Gallaher lived through the war, although Stuart was killed by a sniper's bullet in 1864. Accompanied by his service records, as well as a Les Jenson Letter of Authenticity. Ex William A Turner Collection 75,000
Riflemen always having been a legendary American arm of service, the idea of forming two regiments of outstanding marksmen was conceived by Hiram Berdan, himself a champion rifle-shot for fifteen years prior to the war, who, though con Organising his two regiments, Berdan was appointed Colonel of the 1st U.S. Sharpshooters, with Colonel H. A. Post to command the 2nd. All recruits were required to place ten consecutive shots within five inches of a bullseye at 200 yards to be accepted, and originally provided their own rifles this latter practice naturally caused difficulties of ammunition-supply, so Berdan requested an issue of Sharps rifles. They received only muzzle-loading Springfields, until a remarkable display of marksmanship by Berdan himself brought Lincoln's personal intervention, resulting in the issue of the desired Sharps rifles. Almost invariably both regiments were deployed in small groups of snipers and skirmishers, in which duty they excelled Berdan's wildest hopes it...
Recruits for the 1st USSS demonstrate tholr shooting skills to civilians. This sort of bonch rest was also usod Ir training its members in marksmanship, tHarper's Weekly) string of 22 inches. Sergcani-Major Brown, under more unfavorable circumstances, made a string of 33 inches, with a strange rifle. In testing the applicants at Albany, about two-thirds were found unfitted, and indeed the general average of incompetent applicants is more than that. The American riflemen prove generally superior, especially in the hunters of new England and the West.
In 1861 Massachusetts bought 5,000 M1842 muskets, 4,000 M1841 rifles, 14,700 P1858 Enfield rifled muskets, 10,000 sets of British-made infantry accoutrements, 32,400 US-made infantry accoutrements, 1,960 Mi841 riflemen's accoutrements, 285 Savage revolvers, 889 sabres, and 900 sabre bayonets for its volunteers. Thereafter, the state contracted with S. Norris and W. T. Clement for 3,000 Mi863 rifled muskets which were marked on the lockplate 'S.N.&W.T.C. FOR MASSACHUSETTS-.
Alexandria Riflemen Formed in Alexandria in 18513, die 011 ii spent die war as Co.A, 1 71(1 Virginia Infantry. lis dress caps were green with a green pompon and a brass Virginia coat of arms within a wreath cap badge. The frock coats were green with epaulettes and trousers were a matching green. Company F Formed in Richmond nearly 1859as Co.F. ist Virginia Regiment, the unit's Civil W ar service was as Co.F. uisi Virginia Infantry. The uniform included cadet grey kepis with the brass company letter in front and gold braid for officers and black braid lor enlisted men on the front, back, and sides. I he matching tjrey single-breasted frock coat had a gold lace buttonhole on each side of the standing collar and two gold buttonholes on each culf. Officers' coats were slightly longer than those of the enlisted men and had gold Austrian knots on their cuffs. XCIO chevrons were black. Matching grey trousers had a single ij in. black siripe for enlisted men and a gold strip- br officers. On...
Cleburne, the former corporal in the British Army, was a successful attorney and druggist at Helena, and would become one of only two foreign-bom officers to attain the rank of major-general in the Confederate army. His 15th Arkansas contained the Yell Rifles (Co C), his old company from Helena ( a splendid company of riflemen ) with at least 30 Irish names on roll the Napoleon Grays (Co D) and Phillips Guards (Co G) each contained about the same number. The Napoleon Grays was composed of many Irish riverboat men from the small port of that name, and earned a reputation for brawling and hard drinking. They often did duty as skirmishers, a dangerous job for which they showed a talent. The Napoleon Grays performed well at Perryville on October 8, 1862, where Cleburne ordered his Irish skirmishers - with regimental flags flying - to deploy ten paces ahead of his main battle line. As the Rebels reached the lop of a hill, it appeared to the Federals to be the whole enemy batde...
The fighting in the Fojnica area began on July 2, shortly after the visit of Gen. Philippe Morillon, the UN commander in Bosnia-Herzegovina, who promised to maintain the town as a peaceful oasis. Fojnica fell to the ABiH on July 10, and the Croats were chased out and went over the mountains to Visnica, where they occupied empty Muslim houses. In the course of the Muslim attack on Fojnica, the ABiH burned part of the HVO war hospital as well as the Hotel Reumal, and the mental hospital was damaged by attacks and snipers from Muslim positions on Zvjezdice opposite the Drin and the Mal Ploca Heights opposite Bakovici.8
On the morning of May 9, the armies were largely in place. Even before the battle unfolded, a Confederate sniper cut down the Union commander of the 6th Corps, Major General John Sedgwick. The day saw little action, however, as Grant waited until May 10 to launch several attacks against Lee's lines of defense, without managing to break through. Lee had chosen his defense lines well. Using the local terrain to his advantage, Lee had centered his line around a large, round hill that stuck out into Union territory. The hill was known as the Mule Shoe. The position was easy to defend and difficult to crack.
The first avtotankovy otryads (auto-tank detachments) were formed in 1920 and had 81-113 men, three or four tanks, one or two artillery pieces and 12-28 machine-guns. They had the following establishment one or two tank platoons, a tank support section (30 riflemen with two machine-guns), a headquarters and a reserve (signals section, three or four cars and three or four trucks).
Operations forces to degrade the enemy's command and control capabilities and heavy reliance on artillery firepower in both the offense and defense) with those of the U.S. Army (for example, the active defense ). To these were added uniquely Yugoslavian elements based on their own combat experience and exercises and combining the use of regular, partisan, and irregular TO forces. Inasmuch as the JNA's defense doctrine envisioned a rather short period of conventional warfare followed by an extended guerrilla campaign, emphasis was placed on the conduct of both large- and small-scale guerrilla raids, ambushes, and terrorist actions throughout enemy-held territory. Consequently, territorial defense personnel received a good deal of training in small-unit tactics, special operations, and the employment of snipers all of which figured prominently in the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
HVO forces occurred, but for the most part the situation remained relatively calm. Typical incidents included the killing of an HVO soldier by a sniper near Pokrajcici on May 10, and small-scale fighting between units of the ABiH 306th Mountain Brigade and the HVO Frankopan Brigade on the morning of May 11, which resulted in one KIA and one WIA on each side.13 The continuing incidents were serious enough, however, to elicit several complaints by the OZCB commander to ECMM and UNPROFOR authorities. At the same time, Colonel Blaskic was obliged to once again remind his own forces of their obligations under the terms of the cease-fire agreement, particularly as related to the free passage throughout the central Bosnia region of UNPROFOR, UNHCR, and other international organizations.14 Blaskic went on to state that the ABiH seriously expect 'the job to be finished' in Konjic and then regroup forces and attack Kiseljak, Kresevo and Busovaca via Fojnica. His assessment of the Muslim forces...
Archer's troops met light resistance from Sickles' rearguard. Graham's Pennsylvanians, who were supporting Huntington's battery on Hazel Grove, were in turn supported by Union troops firing from Fairview Knoll. The unimpeded Union artillery shredded Archer's men, stalling their advance. Confederate riflemen volleyed and eventually drove off the Pennsylvanians, and Archer reformed. His unit then charged and took the position, along with 100 Union prisoners. It was 0630 hours.
Surprisingly, handguns were not part of the official arms issue to infantry officers. Sidearms carried by infantry officers and indeed the many infantrymen who began the war with a brace of pistols stuck into their belts, were privately purchased. The most common sidearm was the famous Colt six shot single action revolver. Each cylinder in the revolver was loaded using a paper or linen cartridge containing powder and ball rammed home with a rammer under the barrel. A percussion cap was then placed on the nipple at the other end of the chamber and each time the hammer was cocked, the cylinder was rotated and fired when the trigger was pulled and the hammer hit the cap.
The Seal of the Company of Military Historians commemorates the founding of the United States Army. On June 14, 1775, the Continental Congress resolved That six companies of expert riflemen be immediately raised in Pennsylvania, two in Maryland, and two in Virginia. These . . . remarkably stout and hardy men, many of them exceeding six feet in height, clad in hunting shirts and armed with a rifle-barreled gun, a tomahawk and a long knife were the first United States Regulars.
Fortuna's Rangers endured five weeks of urban crime and guerilla warfare before she could no longer maintain complete control over her soldiers. During that time, 'Mechs and vehicles would be mysteriously sabotaged, bombs and sniper attacks killed and wounded hundreds, drug use within the regiment skyrocketed and individuals would just suddenly disappear off of the street, only to turn up days or weeks later horribly mutilated. When the regimental chaplain fell victim to one of these latter attacks, the unit exploded into action, slowly at first, but losing almost complete control within a week's time. Infantry and armored troopers began by stopping and searching suspected criminals, which very rapidly became anyone they encountered. Eventually they were forced to fire warning shots to halt suspects, and when they encountered return fire, they dropped all pretenses of civility. On the 24th of May the Rangers began to level entire buildings, while three days later they just began to...
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