Major Union campaigns

With reinforcements from Buell's command, Grant seized the initiative early the next morning, attacking and eventually sweeping the field by afternoon. Sherman then attempted to organize an effective pursuit, but it was too late. The Federals were as confused in victory as the Rebels were in defeat.

What Grant won on the battlefield at Shiloh, however, he lost in the eves of the Northern public. The unprepared state of the army, and the massive casualties at Shiloh, over 13,000 on the Union side and 10,600 Confederates in two days, appalled Northerners, and cries for Grant's removal radiated from all around the country. Halleck stepped in. stilling the public clamor against Grant but also displacing him. While Grant stewed in his nominal post of second-in-command, Halleck cautiously maneuvered his ponderous army of over 100,000 and eventually occupied Corinth.

By mid-June 1862, the Union had achieved extraordinary success in the West. Kentucky and central and western Tennessee had fallen into Union hands, as had a part of northern Mississippi. Brigadier-General John Pope had crushed Rebel defenses at New Madrid, Missouri, and Island No. 10, removing obstacles to Mississippi River passage all the way down to northern Mississippi. Nav al forces advancing downriver blasted past Fort Pillow, and by early June they had shelled Memphis into submission. Farther to the south, a Union fleet led by David Farragut had pounded its way upriver and compelled the Confederacy's largest city. New Orleans, to surrender. Occupation troops followed.

When Lincoln called Halleck to Washington as commanding general the following month, it looked on the surface as if the Confederacy in the west was in dire straits. But before Halleck left, he slowed the advance and began to consolidate Federal gains, dispersing his massive army for some occupation duty and an advance under Buell on Chattanooga. Tennessee. It did not take long for the initiative to shift to the Confederacy.

Admiral David Farragut became the first great naval hero for the United States in the war A bold commander Farragut forced his fleet up the Mississippi River and compelled New Orleans to surrender in 1862. Later he forced his way into Mobile Bay and closed a valuable Confederate port (Library of Congress)

Admiral David Farragut became the first great naval hero for the United States in the war A bold commander Farragut forced his fleet up the Mississippi River and compelled New Orleans to surrender in 1862. Later he forced his way into Mobile Bay and closed a valuable Confederate port (Library of Congress)

After Johnston's death, his second-in-command. General P. G. T. Beauregard, took over. Beauregard successfully evacuated Corinth, but then took an unauthorized leave when he fell ill. Confederate President Davis, already irritated with Beauregard for his unprofessional conduct in Virginia, used this as the basis for Beauregard's replacement. Davis chose General Braxton Bragg, a Mexican War hero with a reputation for quarrelsomeness, as the new commander.

Confederate cavalrymen in the area taught Bragg a valuable lesson. While Buell's army crept east toward Chattanooga, Forrest's cavalry struck his railroad supply-line, and later another mounted raid under Kentuckian John Hunt Morgan did so as well. Both Rebel horsemen made Buell's life extremely difficult. Bragg realized that a larger, coordinated movement in the Federal rear might wreak havoc on Federal troops in

Mississippi and Tennessee, and force them to yield the territory they had taken since February. Once Confederate troops trod on Kentucky soil. Bragg was sure thousands would flock to his army and take up arms against the Union.

By rail, Bragg shifted 30,000 men to Chattanooga, where they began an advance. From Knoxville, Tennessee, Edmund Kirbv Smith with 21,000 men, including a division of Bragg's, left in mid-August, passing through the Cumberland Gap and driving deep into Kentucky. Yet the march into the Bluegrass State was not much cause for local celebration. Few volunteers rushed to the Rebel banner.

Prodded by military and political officials, Buell finally undertook pursuit in early October. After much maneuvering on both sides, portions of the two armies collided in

The despised commander of the Army of the Tennesssee. Braxton Bragg had been a hero in the Mexican Wan where he made a favorable impression on Jefferson Davis. His failure to follow up at Chickamauga may have been one of the greatest mistakes of the war He resigned command of the army after the debacle at Missionary Ridge. (Library of Congress)

The despised commander of the Army of the Tennesssee. Braxton Bragg had been a hero in the Mexican Wan where he made a favorable impression on Jefferson Davis. His failure to follow up at Chickamauga may have been one of the greatest mistakes of the war He resigned command of the army after the debacle at Missionary Ridge. (Library of Congress)

some hilly terrain around Perryville, Kentucky. Because of an acoustic shadow, neither Bragg nor Buell heard any shots and they did not know the battle was taking place. As a result, soldiers who were literally a few miles from the battlefield did not participate. Despite 7,500 casualties, neither side gained an advantage, and Bragg withdrew his forces back to Tennessee.

The raid into Kentucky exposed serious flaws in both the Confederate and the Union commanders. Grumbling over Bragg filtered back to Richmond, and Confederate President Davis, himself a man of considerable military experience and accomplishment, proposed an interesting solution. General Joseph E.Johnston, who had suffered a serious wound at the Battle of Seven Pines several months earlier, had recovered enough to return to active duty. He could not get his old command back; General Robert E. Lee had been so effective with it that the soldiers and the public viewed the army as his. But Johnston possessed leadership skills and experience that the Confederacy needed. Rather than replace Bragg or the new commander around Vicksburg, Northern-born Lieutenant-General John C. Pemberton, Davis superseded them.

All along, Davis hoped his commanders could assume the offensive, but when the Federals advanced, the Confederate President wanted army commanders to concentrate manpower and other resources by tapping neighboring departments. Johnston's new assignment was to oversee military forces from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River. Davis expected him to coordinate their military activities, help them formulate plans, inspect, critique, and advise. Of course, when he was present, Johnston should command, but Davis wanted him to focus on the strategic and operational, not the tactical, levels. Johnston never grasped the concept.

Similarly, on the Union side, Lincoln had soured on Buell. Cautious to a fault, Buell followed Bragg hesitantly as the Rebel army escaped from Kentucky. By late October, an exasperated Lincoln had had enough. When Buell announced that he preferred to restore his supply base in Nashville instead of chasing Rebels, the President replaced him with Major-General William Rosecrans.

Lincoln wanted generals who would seize the initiative and, for a while, it appeared as if he had chosen the wrong man. Rosecrans planned painstakingly, and when Lincoln urged him to advance on the enemy, he refused to budge until everything was in order. Finally, Rosecrans moved out of Nashville with 42,00(1 men the day after Christmas. Despite skillful harassment by Rebel cavalry, Rosecrans pressed on toward Chattanooga and Bragg's army. On 30 December 1862, the armies confronted each other around Stones River, just north of Murfreesboro.

Strangely enough, Rosecrans and Bragg formed the same plan: to turn their opponents' right flank and get in their rear. Bragg got a jump on the Federals the next day, attacking first. His people roared down on the Yankee flank and pushed it back, but the Confederates could not get around Rosecrans's rear. On New Year's Day, the two sides skirmished. On the following day, though, Bragg attacked on the other side of the field. Although his men gained some high ground, they suffered heavy losses from Yankee artillery. As Union reinforcements arrived the next day, Bragg knew he must fall back.

At the Battle of Stones River, Rosecrans suffered 31 percent casualties, while Bragg lost a third of his men. Together, these were the highest proportionate losses in a single, major battle throughout the war. In victory, it took months for Rosecrans's Army of the Cumberland to recover. In defeat, dissension over Bragg worsened, but Johnston refused to take over, fearing the perception of him replacing Bragg with himself.

Farther to the west. Grant's reputation plummeted after the débâcle at Shiloh. When Hal leek stepped in to oversee the Corinth campaign. Grant had nothing to do. After pondering for some time, he decided to ask Halleck to relieve him. Fortunately, Sherman talked Grant out of leaving, and six weeks later, authorities ordered Halleck to

Henry W. Halleck. who was Grant's commander dunng the Forts Henry and Donelson campaign, supplanted him after Shiloh. A critic of Grant his appointment as commanding general restored Grant to command He later served under Grant as chief of staff. (Library of Congress)

Washington and appointed him general-in-chief. Grant resumed charge of his old army. Patience had won Grant an opportunity to restore his name.

Back east, too, Grant won a reprieve. Halleck's ascension to the office of general-in-chief in the summer of 1862 improved his standing with the authorities in Washington. The new commanding general arrived in the nation's capital as a moderately strong Grant proponent. Halleck publicly exonerated him for his actions at Shiloh. After his own experiences in command at Corinth. Halleck had softened his initial criticism of Grant. Although he 'is careless of his command.' Halleck commented to Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, he evaluated Grant 'as a good general and brave in battle.'

The Vicksburg campaign

For several months afterward. Grant did little but combat raiding parties and guerrilla bands. After Halleck had scattered his mammoth army. Grant lacked sufficient force to launch another offensive. Runaway slaves, cotton trading, guerrillas. Confederate raids, and offended civilians absorbed his time and energy. Campaigning, it seemed, had taken a back seat to occupying secessionist territory.

But by late October 1862, pressure for a campaign against Vicksburg had begun to build. Nestled on a 200ft (61m) bluff overlooking the Mississippi River, Vicksburg dominated passage along the waterway. In Confederate hands, some cleverly positioned cannon could block Union transit. For the Federals, Vicksburg and Port Hudson, Louisiana, represented the last two Rebel strongholds along the Mississippi River. Once Vicksburg fell to Union forces, Port Hudson would become untenable. Then the Federals would control the entire length of the river and would slice off and isolate the Trans-Mississippi Confederacy.

A politician turned general, John A. McClernand, had received authority from Lincoln to raise a command to capture Vicksburg. Grant, who knew McClernand well, had serious doubts about McClernand's ability and temperament to lead such an expedition, judging him 'unmanageable and incompetent,' and at the urging of Halleck he decided to preempt McClernand's Vicksburg campaign by attempting it himself.

Grant's plan called for two separate forces to advance simultaneously and without communication, a risky proposition at best. While Grant personally led an army south along the Mississippi Central Railroad toward Jackson, hoping to draw Confederate forces out for a fight, Sherman would slip down the Mississippi River on transports and land near Chickasaw Bluffs, just north of Vicksburg. Sherman's troops then would brush aside the light Confederate opposition and seize the city. But the scheme quickly fell awry.

Two Rebel cavalry raids severed Grant's supply line, and he fell back under the misapprehension that his feint had succeeded and Sherman had captured Vicksburg. The Confederates at Vicksburg, however, did not budge from their works, and when Sherman tried to storm the bluffs in late December, Confederate shells and balls cut bluecoats down by the hundreds.

The new year brought a blend of headaches and hope for Grant and Sherman. On 2 January 1863, McClernand arrived by-transport north of Vicksburg with his newly-created army. Commissioned a major-general of volunteers that ranked him above Sherman, McClernand took command of all forces there. They had no prospects of capturing Vicksburg from below Chickasaw Bluffs. Sherman, therefore, proposed a joint army-navy operation against Fort Hindman, often called Arkansas Post, on the Arkansas River, from which Confederates had launched raids against Federal transit along the Mississippi River. McClernand endorsed the concept so warmly that he eventually-claimed the idea as his, while Admiral David Dixon Porter needed coaxing from Sherman. Porter had all the confidence in the world in Sherman and none in McClernand, and as a result he extracted a promise from McClernand that Sherman would run the operation. On 9 January, the Federal expedition reached the vicinity of Arkansas Post, and within two days, Porter's bombardment had compelled the defenders to raise up the white flag. Nearly 5,000 prisoners fell into Union hands.

Grant, meanwhile, had resolved some important questions in his own mind about the upcoming Vicksburg campaign. Since McClernand lacked the fitness to command, he would direct operations personally. McClernand, Sherman, and a Grant protégé named James B. McPherson, a personable engineer officer who graduated first in the West Point class of 1853, would command corps.

The overland advance along the Mississippi Central Railroad had failed, so Grant explored a variety of options to get at Vicksburg. He

John A McClernand. a politician from Illinois before the war commanded a division at Forts Henry and Donelson and again at Shiloh He raised troops that helped him capture Arkansas Post McClernand commanded a corps in the Vicksburg campaign, fighting at Raymond. Champion Hill, and the assaults on Vicksburg. Quick to claim glory, he tailed to gam the trust of Grant or Sherman and was removed. Later, he led a corps under Banks in the disastrous Red River campaign (Library of Congress)

John A McClernand. a politician from Illinois before the war commanded a division at Forts Henry and Donelson and again at Shiloh He raised troops that helped him capture Arkansas Post McClernand commanded a corps in the Vicksburg campaign, fighting at Raymond. Champion Hill, and the assaults on Vicksburg. Quick to claim glory, he tailed to gam the trust of Grant or Sherman and was removed. Later, he led a corps under Banks in the disastrous Red River campaign (Library of Congress)

tried bypassing it, and seeking waterways that could position his army on the bluffs to the northeast of the city. 'Heretofore I have had nothing to do but fight the enemy,' a dejected Grant commented to his wife. 'This time I have to overcome obsticles to reach him.' When the last effort to turn Vicksburg on the right failed, Grant, Sherman, and Porter reconnoitered to select the best places to land troops.

But on that April Fool's Day, as he gazed across the Yazoo at the opposite slopes, he realized just how costly an attack here would be. and with no assurance of success. Lately, he had contemplated an unconventional movement that would take his army around to the enemy left flank. It was a risky-proposition, but in a very different way from the frontal attack against Confederates occupying high ground. As he stood there, mulling it over in his mind. Grant determined that it was worth a try.

Grant began the campaign by asking the ever game Porter to run gunboats and barges past the Vicksburg batteries. For deception, Grant sent a cavalryman named Colonel Benjamin Grierson to launch a raid through the interior of Mississippi and come out at the Union army around Port Hudson, and he called on Sherman to feign an attack at Haines' Bluff. Meanwhile, the other two corps would march along the western side of the Mississippi River and Porter's people would shuttle them across the river to Bruinsburg, below Vicksburg. Eventually, Sherman's men would follow.

Once on the eastern side, Grant launched one of the most brilliant campaigns in American military history. By rapid marches, he continually confused his enemy. His army-pounded the Confederate forces protecting Vicksburg, and then moved quickly to the northeast, where they hammered a Rebel command accumulating near the capital city of Jackson under General Joseph E. Johnston. Grant then turned back on Vicksburg, and had McClernand not attacked prematurely, he might have interposed Sherman's corps between Vicksburg and its defending columns. All told, the Union army fought five battles, and even though there were more Confederates in the campaign than Federals, Grant placed superior numbers on each battlefield and won everyone of them. By mid-May, he was laying siege against Vicksburg.

The Confederate commander at Vicksburg, Pemberton, had a chance to escape. Johnston urged him to do so, but Pemberton had also received explicit instructions from President Davis to hold the city at all costs. After a council of war, Pemberton chose to hunker down and await succor from Johnston. It would never arrive.

Shortly after he besieged Vicksburg, Grant attempted to storm the Rebel works twice and was repulsed on both occasions. He also removed McClernand from command for violating a War Department directive and for general incompetence. Otherwise, he supervised a traditional siege that slowly strangled Pemberton's army. By early July, it became apparent to the Confederate general that his cause was lost. On 4 July, Pemberton

David Dixon Porter, whose father also raised David Farragut. proved to be a wonderful naval commander. Intolerant of red tape. Porter's aggressiveness and spint of cooperation with the army won him lifetime friendship wrth Grant and Sherman. Porter was invaluable in the Vicksburg campaign and the fall of Fort Fisher (Library of Congress)

David Dixon Porter, whose father also raised David Farragut. proved to be a wonderful naval commander. Intolerant of red tape. Porter's aggressiveness and spint of cooperation with the army won him lifetime friendship wrth Grant and Sherman. Porter was invaluable in the Vicksburg campaign and the fall of Fort Fisher (Library of Congress)

surrendered almost 30,000 Rebels and 172 artillery pieces. For the second time, Grant had captured a Confederate army.

The fall of Vicksburg left one last Confederate toehold on the Mississippi River - Port Hudson. Louisiana. Located some 25 miles (4()km) north of Baton Rouge, Port Hudson consisted of extensive man-made works and natural obstructions, especially swamps. Like Vicksburg, its commander, Major-General Franklin Gardner, hailed from the North. Gardner, who had fought at Shiloh and in Bragg's Kentucky campaign, had a mere 7,000 troops to hold the position.

Against Gardner and his defenders, the Union sent Major-General Nathanial P. Banks and 20,000 troops, accompanied by Farragut's warships. From 8 to 10 May, Union gunboats shelled and ultimately silenced the batteries. Banks maneuvered his troops around the Confederate defenses, taking a horseshoe-shaped position, with the ends stretching to the riverbank. On 27 May, Banks launched an uncoordinated assault. Among the participants were two black regiments, the 1st and 3rd Louisiana Native Guards. Charging well-defended fortifications, and part of the way through floodwater, the black infantrymen exhibited courage, even in the face of severe losses. The Union attack was repulsed everywhere. Again on 11 June and then 14 June, the Union columns attacked and failed. Banks resigned himself to siege, hoping to starve out the defenders. One Confederate recorded in his diary that he and his comrades ate 'all the beef - all the mules - all the Dogs - and all the Rats' they could find.

Once word of the fall of Vicksburg reached the Port Hudson defenders, Gardner knew his cause was hopeless. He surrendered on 9 July. Banks suffered 3,000 casualties in the campaign, while the Confederates lost 7,200. of whom 5.500 were taken prisoner. Lincoln could now announce proudly. The Father of Waters again goes unvexed to the sea.'

Crisis in Missouri

The conflict in Missouri stretched back long before the firing on Fort Sumter in April 1861. Violence first erupted in 1854 when Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. creating those territories, repealing the Missouri Compromise, which stated that all territories north of 36° 30' latitude would be free soil, and substituting popular sovereignty - a vote of the people there - to determine whether slavery could exist or not. As settlers poured into the Kansas Territory, a Northern, antislavery flavor was discernible. To tilt the balance toward slaveholders, Missourians crossed the border and cast ballots illegally and intimidated antislavery voters. Antislavery Kansans responded to violence with more violence, and soon Kansas was aflame in brutality. Border Ruffians from Missouri launched raids that resulted in rapes, murders, pillaging, and home burning. Among those who retaliated, John Brown of Osawatomie, Kansas, led a band that savagely murdered five pro-slavery neighbors.

Strangely enough, the secession crisis of 1860-61 brought matters to a lull, as both sides struggled to size up the situation. Missouri Governor Claiborne Jackson advocated secession and called for the state to join the Confederacy. Pro-Union opposition, centered around the German-American community in St Louis and led by Francis P. Blair, a member of one of the most prominent families in Missouri, resisted. When the governor mobilized pro-secession militia and positioned them to seize the US arsenal in St Louis, Blair acted. He encouraged a fiery red-headed US army officer named Nathaniel Lyon to surround and disarm the militia, which Lyon accomplished. But as he marched his prisoners back, a crowd of civilians gathered and harassed and abused Lyon's militiamen. Finally, someone shot and killed one of Lyon's officers, and his troops retaliated by blasting into the crowd. When the smoke cleared, 28 people lay dead.

From this moment on. the violence took on a life of its own. Union troops and opponents of slavery in Kansas and Missouri began sacking towns and seizing slaves and other property from Missourians. These acts inflamed old passions and drove many neutrals or pro-Union advocates, among them a Mexican War veteran named Sterling

John S. Pemberton (right), a Northerner by birth, commanded Confederate forces at Vicksburg. Caught between orders from President Davis and General Johnston, Pemberton could not decide whether to try to save Vicksburg or his army. He lost both. (Ann Ronan Picture Library)

Price, into the secessionist camp. After an attempt to broker a peace failed, Lyon assumed the offensive and began driving Price and pro-Confederate forces from the state. In his wake, Lyon stirred up all sorts of guerrilla bands. William Quantrill and 'Bloody Bill' Anderson led the Rebel bushwhackers. Among their followers were acclaimed robbers Frank and Jesse James and Cole and Jim Younger. From Kansas, pro-Union guerrillas included the diminutive 'Big Jim' Lane and Charles Jennison.

By August 1861, Price had accumulated 8,000 Missourians, augmented by some 5,000 Confederate soldiers under Ben McCulloch. Before he could attack, though, Lyon struck first. Unwilling to retreat and yield all the territory he had secured, Lyon elected to surprise the enemy at a place called Wilson's Creek. Initially, his attack on both flanks made headway, but a Confederate counterassault drove both back. The Rebels then focused on the Union center, where Lyon directed the fight. Although the Union commander was killed, his line repelled Price's attacks. When the smoke cleared, the Confederates had called off the fight, but the Union forces had lost 20 percent of their men and had been so badly damaged that they retreated. Price, whose command suffered slightly fewer casualties, slowly marched northward, collecting recruits and pressing all the way to Lexington, between St Louis and Kansas City.

In St Louis, the recently appointed commander of the Western Department, Major-General John C. Fremont, overreacted. The Republican Party candidate for president in 1856, Fremont declared martial law, proclaimed the death penalty for all

Sterling Price, a Mexican War veteran and an original opponent of secession in Missouri, soured on the Union after Frank Blair and others took aggressive action to block the governor's pro-Confederate policies. He commanded Missouri's secessionist militia in 1861. led a Confederate division as a major-general at Pea Ridge in 1862. and directed the last raid into Missouri in 1864. After suffering a defeat at Westport near Kansas City, he began his retreat, enduring Union harassment along a roundabout route back to Arkansas.

guerrillas, and freed all slaves of Confederate supporters. Although the emancipation directive caused outrage in the North, Lincoln privately asked Fremont to modify his order, to save the General from embarrassment. With unparalleled temerity. Fremont refused, and Lincoln had to order it.

Having irritated his commander-in-chief and many others, Fremont needed a victory to restore his reputation. He accumulated a large force, some 38,000. and began a pursuit of Price. The militia commander fell back, a good portion of his army melting back into the countryside to complete the fall harvest. An order relieving Fremont reached him before he caught up with Price.

Price's retreat into Arkansas did not quash Confederate designs on Missouri. In March 1862, Major-General F.arl Van Dorn gathered 16.0(H) men, including some Indian troops, with Price and McCulloch as division commanders. His plan was to brush aside Union opposition and capture St Louis, a prize that would earn him accolades throughout the Confederacy. Union commander Brigadier-General Samuel Curtis, a tough old West Pointer, had other ideas. Van Dorn attempted to swing around Curtis's rear, but Yankee scouts including 'Wild' Bill Hickok spotted the movement. When the Rebels attacked at Pea Ridge, Arkansas, they made little headway. The next

day, Union artillery silenced Confederate guns, and a Federal assault swept the field.

Had the Union authorities only confronted organized armies in Missouri, they would probably have eliminated the threat in 1863. But longstanding tensions, ideological differences over slavery, and the conduct of Union troops stirred up a hornets' nest of trouble from guerrilla bands. Although many Rebel guerrillas there had strong ties to slavery, quite a few others exhibited a passion for violence and destruction that may have been pathological. Helping to ignite this tinderbox were Kansans who combined fervent abolitionism with a passion for plundering.

During the Missouri campaign of 1861, there were pockets of fighting in which neither side gave quarter. Yet raids from Kansas fueled the violence when they extended from confiscation of slaves and livestock to arson, robbery, and murder. These Kansans insisted they were merely retaliating for the slaughter of seven of their people by guerrillas a few days earlier, but acts of savagery begat more acts of savagery, and soon the entire region was ablaze in deeds of violence or brutal reprisals.

In an effort to check the acts of partisans, Union occupation troops under Major-Genera! David Hunter and John Schofield nearly ruined their careers with repeated failures. They tried building forts in guerrilla-infested areas, but local partisans blended into the community and struck when they discovered soldiers at a disadvantage. Next, they experimented with population removal. Because guerrillas drew from friends and families for support, Brigadier-Genera) Thomas Eiving had arrested the wives and family members of notorious guerrillas as leverage against them. Not long afterward, in August 1863, Ewing announced he would transport those under arrest as well as the families and other supporters of the Confederacy to Arkansas. Before he could do that, though, the rickety building where he housed some of the women collapsed, killing five and crippling another. Two victims were sisters of William

A West Point graduate and a former Republican congressman from Iowa. Samuel R Curtis led a successful operation into southwest Missouri and northern Arkansas, and defeated Confederates at Pea Ridge. After heading the Departments of Missouri and Kansas. Curtis led Union forces that helped to defeat Price's Missouri Raid in 1864. (Library of Congress)

A West Point graduate and a former Republican congressman from Iowa. Samuel R Curtis led a successful operation into southwest Missouri and northern Arkansas, and defeated Confederates at Pea Ridge. After heading the Departments of Missouri and Kansas. Curtis led Union forces that helped to defeat Price's Missouri Raid in 1864. (Library of Congress)

Anderson, already known for his violence. He now vowed to kill every Yankee he could find, and it was not long before he earned the nickname 'Bloody Bill.'

In retaliation, Quantrill led his party of 450 on a raid against Lawrence, Kansas, a hotbed of abolitionism. En route, they forced Kansas farmers to act as guides and then executed them. On 21 August, they slipped into town and disposed of the small number of soldiers there. The town soon surrendered, but those words meant nothing to Quantrill and his followers. AJ) toJd, they murdered 150 males, wounded 30 more, and torched 185 buildings.

Federals responded to the raid by ordering all western Missourians who did not live in certain cities to migrate. Those who pledged loyalty to the Union could settle around forts, and all others would have to abandon the area. Union authorities hoped to deprive guerrillas of local support and establish free-fire zones in the area, thereby eliminating much of the worry of distinguishing friend from foe. The policy had little if any effect on the bushwhackers.

What ultimately led to the demise of guerrilla activities actually stemmed from their own success. Various partisan activities had impressed Price, particularly the work of Quantrill, and when they insisted that Missourians would rise up in support of the Confederacy if he raided into the state. Price jumped at the opportunity. With 12,000 cavalry, half of whom lacked arms, Price crossed into Missouri in mid-September 1864.

In support of the movement, various pro-Rebel bushwhackers had attacked isolated posts, towns, and pockets of soldiers, massacring troops and civilians, armed and disarmed alike. Simmering divisions began to bubble to the surface among guerrilla leaders. Anderson wanted to attack the fortified garrison at Fayette; Quantrill opposed it as too dangerous. When Anderson and his men suffered a repulse and the loss of 13 men, it only infuriated them more. A few days later, they entered Centralia in search of plunder and news of Price's whereabouts. There they pulled 25 unarmed Union soldiers off the train and executed them. When some Missouri militiamen stumbled on the guerrillas, they attacked and suffered a horrible defeat. Out of an original 147 militiamen, 129 were cut down. The guerrillas then committed a host of atrocities, including cutting off the genitals of a living soldier and placing them in his mouth.

Price, meanwhile, had advanced well into Missouri. The same day as the Centralia Massacre, his command attacked Federals under Ewing at Pilot Knob, suffering heavy losses in the repulse. As Union reinforcements arrived in Missouri, Price pressed westward along the south bank of the Missouri River. Anderson and his people met up with them, and Price sent them on a destructive spree north of the river. Before October ended, Anderson fell to two militiamen's balls. They placed his body on display, then severed his head, and eventually buried him in an unmarked grave.

As Price's columns pressed toward Kansas

City, Union forces closed in on them. With Curtis to his front and Major-General Alfred Pleasanton closing from his rear, Price attempted to beat them in detail. He attacked Curtis first, and pushed the Union command back initially, but the Federals stiffened and launched their own counterattack. To the rear, Pleasonton drove back the Rebel cavalry, and Price began his retreat. Federals continued to press him. capturing 1,000 men in Kansas. Eventually, his command limped into Arkansas with only half of his original 12,000.

Price's raid was the last major Confederate undertaking west of the Mississippi River. Guerrilla fighting continued in Missouri, however, and extended well after the war, as unreconstructed bands like the Jameses and Youngers continued to rob and plunder. Quantrill, having suffered the humiliation of a rebellion in his ranks, elected to shift his base of operations to Kentucky. In May, he was shot in the back and paralyzed by Union troops. Fie died almost a month later.

TheTullahoma campaign

During the Vicksburg campaign. Ilalleck and even Grant pleaded with Rosecrans to advance. Since early in the war, the idea of liberating Unionists in East Tennessee had intrigued Lincoln. Once Grant had crossed the Mississippi River and engaged Pemberton's forces, the administration had e%'en more reason to demand that Rosecrans attack: Union leaders feared that Bragg's army would rush reinforcements west to defeat Grant. If 'Old Rosy,' as his men called him, would advance on the Confederate Army of the Tennessee, Bragg would be compelled to hold on to all he had. In fact, Johnston did draw troops from Bmgg, as well as units from the Atlantic coastal defense. Yet Rosecrans would not be rushed. Finally, after word that Union troops under Major-General Ambrose P. Burnside would push toward East Tennessee, the Union Army of the Cumberland moved out, 169 days after the Battle of Stones River.

Rosecrans may have been slow, but he was not without skills. He used a portion of his army to swing around and threaten the Confederate rear. In an effort to protect the Confederate base at Tullahoma, Bragg pulled his forces back, thereby uncovering valuable gaps in the Cumberland Plateau. With |K>werful Union columns pressing through them and then in on his flanks, and a raid that threatened his rear, Bragg decided to abandon Tullahoma and fall back to Chattanooga.

At comparatively little cost, Rosecrans had driven his enemy back 80 miles (129km). But he deemed further pursuit impossible. Heavy rains had impaired movements on both sides, converting roads into muck. 'Tulla,' so noted one Confederate officer, was Greek for 'mud,' and 'homa' meant 'more mud.' The halt, however, did not sit well with authorities in Washington. They could neither see rainfall nor experience the mud; all they could envision was a delay that would allow Bragg to fortify. And when Old Rosy took time to repair the railroad from Nashville, they interpreted it as his usual temporizing behavior and balked. Finally, under threat of removal, Rosecrans's army rumbled forward again in mid-August 1863, in conjunction with Burnside's advance on Knoxville.

Bragg, meanwhile, had lost the faith of his army and had begun to lose confidence in himself. His corps commanders, Polk and Lieutenant-General William J. Hardee, had voiced displeasure over his leadership. For the most part. Bragg's soldiers despised him for his strict discipline and lack of battlefield success. Under stress, especially during campaigns, he himself grew ever more despondent. Rather than view the mountains

After fighting at luka and Corinth. Rosecrans assumed command of the Army of the Cumberland. He led the army at the bloody engagement at Stones River He directed the army skillfully in the Tullahoma campaign, but suffered a disaster at Chickamauga wnen he pulled troops from his line based on an erroneous report Rebels attacked through the opening and routed his army. Grant replaced him with Thomas. Rosecrans finished out the war as head of the Department of Missoun. (Library of Congress)

around Chattanooga as a defensive advantage, Bragg transformed them in his own mind into a Federal asset.

Because those mountains and the Tennessee River provided strong protection for Chattanooga and its defenders, Rosecrans executed a march of deception, as he had done in the Tullahoma campaign. He sent a portion of his army north of the city, to convey the impression that he was uniting with Burnside. The bulk of his army, though, crossed the Tennessee River to the southwest. By the time Bragg realized what had happened, Union forces were barreling down on his rear. On 8 September, he abandoned Chattanooga to the Federals.

To this point, in spite of delays, Rosecrans had conducted a skillful campaign. But then he got sloppy. He assumed the Rebels would fall back once again, and he divided his army for another maneuver campaign, spreading it out far too wide for the hilly terrain. Fortunately for Old Rosy, Bragg could not exploit the opportunity. Twice the Rebel commander tried to pounce on portions of Rosecrans's isolated forces, and in both instances subordinates failed to execute. In

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