Where to Learn More

Egan, Ferol. Fremont: Explorer for a Restless Nation. Garden City, NY: Dou-bleday, 1977. Reprint, Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1985.

Fremont, John C. Memoirs of My Life. Chicago: Belford, Clarke, 1887.

Harris, Edward D. John Charles Fremont and the Great Western Reconnaissance. New York: Chelsea House, 1990.

Viola, Herman J. Exploring the West. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 1987.

Josiah Gorgas

Born July 1, 1818 Daupin County, Pennsylvania Died May 18, 1883 Tuscaloosa, Alabama

Chief of Confederate Ordnance Bureau Supervised production of weapons and ammunition for the Confederate Army

Josiah Gorgas

Born July 1, 1818 Daupin County, Pennsylvania Died May 18, 1883 Tuscaloosa, Alabama

Chief of Confederate Ordnance Bureau Supervised production of weapons and ammunition for the Confederate Army

General Josiah Gorgas was one of the Confederacy's most valuable officers during the American Civil War. Born in the North, he sided with the South at the war's outset. For the next four years, he supervised the Southern effort to provide its soldiers with the weapons and ammunition that they needed in the conflict. He faced many obstacles during this period, from shortages of raw materials to the huge Union naval blockade of Confederate ports. Despite these difficulties, however, Gorgas did a remarkable job of producing and delivering weaponry to rebel (Confederate) troops during the Civil War. In numerous cases, rebel armies continued to receive needed rifles and ammunition long after their supplies of food and other materials had evaporated.

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