The following list of resources focuses on material appropriate for middle school or high school students. Please note that the web site addresses were verified prior to publication, but are subject to change.
Anders, Curt. Hearts in Conflict: A One-Volume History of the Civil War. Se-caucus, NJ: Carol Pub. Group, 1994.
Anderson, Nancy Scott, and Dwight Anderson. The Generals—Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee. New York: Knopf, 1988.
Aptheker, Herbert. Abolitionism: A Revolutionary Movement. Boston: Twayne, 1989.
Basler, Roy P., ed. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1953.
Berlin, Ira, Joseph P. Reidy, and Leslie S. Rowland, eds. Freedom's Soldiers: The Black Military Experience in the Civil War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Blight, David W. Frederick Douglass's Civil War: Keeping Faith in Jubilee. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.
Bradford, Ned, ed. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. New York: New American Library, 1984.
Buell, Thomas B. The Warrior Generals: Combat Leadership in the Civil War. New York: Crown, 1997.
Carter, Alden R. The Civil War: American Tragedy. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992.
Carter, Samuel. The Last Cavaliers: Confederate and Union Cavalry in the Civil War. St. Martin's Press, 1980.
Catton, Bruce. The Centennial History of the Civil War. 3 vols. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1961-65.
Catton, Bruce. The Civil War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960.
Chadwick, Bruce. The Two American Presidents: A Dual Biography of Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis. Secaucus, NJ: Carol, 1999.
Chang, Ina. A Separate Battle: Women and the Civil War. New York: Scholastic, 1994.
Civil War Generals: An Illustrated Encyclopedia. New York: Gramercy, 1999.
Commager, Henry Steele. The Blue and the Gray. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1950.
Davis, William C. The Commanders of the Civil War. San Diego: Thunder Bay Press, 1999.
Davis, William C. Jefferson Davis: The Man and His Hour. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.
Donald, David Herbert. Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Dowdey, Clifford. Lee's Last Campaign: The Story of Lee and His Men against Grant. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1993.
Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. 3 vols. New York: Random House, 1958-74.
Freeman, Douglas S. Lee's Lieutenants. 3 vols. New York: Scribner's, 1942-44.
Goen, C. C. Broken Churches, Broken Nation. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1985.
Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant. New York: Library of America, 1990.
Green, Carl R., and William R. Sanford. Confederate Generals of the Civil War. Springfield, NJ: Enslow, 1998.
Green, Carl R., and William R. Sanford. Union Generals of the Civil War. Springfield, NJ: Enslow, 1998.
Grimsley, Mark. The Hard Hand of War, Union Military Policy Toward Southern Civilians, 1861-1865. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Gutman, Herbert G. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom. New York: Pantheon, 1976.
Hargrove, Hondon B. Black Union Soldiers in the Civil War. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988.
Harmon, Dan. Civil War Generals. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1997.
Harrell, Carolyn L. When the Bells Tolled for Lincoln. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1997.
Haskins, J. The Day Fort Sumter Was Fired On: A Photo History of the Civil War. New York: Scholastic, 1995.
Hattaway, Herman. Shades of Blue and Gray: An Introductory Military History of the Civil War. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1997.
Hendrickson, Robert. The Road to Appomattox. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1998.
Hennessey, John. Return to Bull Run: The Campaign and Battle of Second Manassas. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992.
Holt, Michael F. The Political Crisis of the 1850s. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978.
Kunhardt, Philip B., Jr. A New Birth of Freedom: Lincoln at Gettysburg. Boston: Little, Brown, 1983.
Leonard, Elizabeth D. All the Daring of the Soldier: Women of the Civil War Armies. New York: W. W. Norton, 1999.
Lincoln, Abraham. Abraham Lincoln: Speeches and Writings. 2 vols. New York: Library of America, 1989.
Linderman, Gerald. Embattled Courage: The Experience of Combat in the American Civil War. New York: Free Press, 1987.
Litwack, Leon. Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979.
Macdonald, John. Great Battles of the Civil War. New York: Macmillan, 1988.
Macmillan Encylopedia of the Confederacy. New York: Macmillan, 1998.
Massey, Mary Elizabeth. Women in the Civil War. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966.
McFeely, William S. Grant: A Biography. New York: Norton, 1981.
McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
McPherson, James M. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
McPherson, James M. Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982.
McPherson, James M., ed. Encyclopedia of Civil War Biographies. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2000.
Mitchell, Joseph B. Military Leaders in the Civil War. New York: Putnam, 1972.
Mitchell, Reid. Civil War Soldiers: Their Expectations and Their Experiences. New York: Viking, 1988.
Morris, Roy, Jr. Sheridan: The Life and Wars of General Phil Sheridan. New York: Crown, 1992.
Murphy, Jim. The Long Road to Gettysburg. New York: Scholastic, 1995.
Nolan, Alan T. Lee Considered: General Robert E. Lee and Civil War History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
Oates, Stephen B. With Malice Toward None: The Life of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.
Paludan, Phillip S. The Presidency of Abraham Lincoln. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994.
Potter, David M. The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.
Ritter, Charles F., and Jon L. Wakelyn. Leaders of the American Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Royster, Charles. The Destructive War: William Tecumseh Sherman, Stonewall Jackson, and the Americans. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.
Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. 4 vols. New York: Har-court Brace, 1939.
Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts on File, 1988.
Stewart, James Brewer. Holy Warriors: The Abolitionists and American Slavery. New York: Hill & Wang, 1976.
Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of the Civil War. New York: William Morrow, 1995.
Thomas, Emory. The Confederate Nation, 1861-1865. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.
Tracey, Patrick Austin. Military Leaders of the Civil War. New York: Facts on File, 1993.
Trelease, Allen W. Reconstruction: The Great Experiment. New York: Harper & Row, 1971.
Trudeau, Noah Andre. Like Men of War: Black Troops in the Civil War, 1862-1865. Boston: Little, Brown, 1998.
Venet, Wendy Hamand. Neither Ballots Nor Bullets: Women Abolitionists and the Civil War. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991.
Ward, Geoffrey C. The Civil War: An Illustrated History. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990.
Woodworth, Steven E. Jefferson Davis and His Generals. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1990.
World Wide Web
American Civil War/Conflict Between the States. http://americanhistory. miningco.com/education/history/americanhistory/msub13.htm (accessed on October 20, 1999).
American Civil War Homepage. http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war (accessed on October 20, 1999).
American Civil War Resources on the Internet. http://www.janke.washcoll. edu/civilwar/civilwar.htm (accessed on October 20, 1999).
Civil War Music and Poetry and Music of the War Between the States. http://users.erols.com/kfraser/ (accessed on October 20, 1999).
Library of Congress. Gettysburg Address Exhibit. www.lcweb.loc.gov/ex-hibits/gadd (accessed on October 20, 1999).
Library of Congress, American Memory. Selected Civil War Photographs. lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/cwphome.html (accessed on October 20, 1999).
Rutgers University Libraries. Civil War Resources on the Internet. http:// www.libraries.rutgers.edu/rulib/socsci/hist/civwar-2.html (accessed on October 20, 1999).
Born December 25, 1821 Oxford, Massachusetts Died April 12, 1912 Glen Echo, New York
Union nurse known as the "angel of the battlefield" for treating wounded Union soldiers Founded the American Red Cross
Born December 25, 1821 Oxford, Massachusetts Died April 12, 1912 Glen Echo, New York
Clara Barton is one of the most remarkable women in American history. A former schoolteacher, she never received any formal training in nursing. But she became a famous figure on Civil War battlefields, where she tended to thousands of sick and wounded soldiers and delivered huge quantities of medicine, food, and other provisions to Union troops. She also remained in the public spotlight after the war concluded. In 1881 she founded the American Red Cross, and in her later years she emerged as a leader in the fight to gain women's suffrage (right to vote).
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