Connecticut's pre-war militia apparently carried both a standard national color, and a dark blue s
The Hag of the $8th R egimen t, Massachusetts Vol tin teer Infan try Regiment (Third Veteran), was captured at the Battle of the Crater, where the regiment lost 172 of200 men engaged. It is white ■and has four ties. (Massachusetts State House, Bureau of State Office Buildings)
regimental color which bore the painted state seal and the regimental designation under it. Such flags were carried by the state's troops as early as 1775. In 1861 the state legislature almost adopted a white version of the regimental color as a state flag, but the passage of the bill was postponed in the state House of Representatives.
As a result, most of the state's infantry regiments carried dark blue regimental colors with an eagle over the state seal of three vines on a white field within an elaborate scroll shadowed by a national red, white, and blue shield. The regimental designation was printed in blue Roman capital letters on a gold scroll under the seal. However, the 1st Connecticut Infantry had this flag in white; and the yth Infantry had this flag with a golden harp on a green device in place of the three vines along with the shield. The beautiful presentation Hag of the 13th Infantry, which was made by Tift'anv & Co., New York, had a symmetrical state seal under an eagle about to take off, with the state motto in gold-embroidered letters under the seal and the regimental designation above the eagle. Battle honours were embroidered in script on the bottom half of the flag. The 27th Infantry carried a regulation US infantry regimental color.
According to The National Handbook, 'The original seal is of an oval form, without any ornamental devices, and on the field are delineated three grape-vines, each winding around and sustained by an upright support, the whole representing the three settlements (Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield) which formed the early colony,'
Connecticut regiments' national colors often had an eagle painted or embroidered in their cantons. Battle honours were often painted on these colors, although streamers were issued to the 5th and 14th Connecticut Infantry Regiments by 1864.
Although Delaware had no official state flag, some of its units apparently used the state seal on a dark blue field. The ist Delaware Infantry Regiment's regimental color included the state seal, although the other regiments appear to have used regulation US Army colors.
According to The National Handbook, the state seal featured 'An azure shield, or escutcheon, divided into two equal parts by a white band or girdle. A cow is represented in the lower part of" the shield, and in the upper part are two symbols, designed probably to represent the agricultural production of the State — grain and tobacco. The crest [a wreath] supports a ship under full sail, displaying the American banner. On a white field around the escutcheon were formally wreaths of flowers, branches of the olive, and other symbols, but these have been displaced for [by] two figures, representing a mariner and a hunter.'
The flag of the ist had a blue riband over the seal bearing the words LIBERTY AND INDEPENDENCE in gold, and a red riband under the seal with the regimental designation, also in gold.
When Florida left the Union on 10 January 1861 she did not have a state flag. Improvising, the first Florida troops used flags which bore a single star. The Military Department of the State went ahead and ordered a flag that featured 13 alternating red and white stripes, with a blue canton bearing a single five-pointed white star in its centre, on 13 January 1861. This flag was first flown over the navy yard at Pensacola the follow mg day.
On 8 February the legislature instructed the state's governor to design an official state flag. He obviously had more urgent matters on his mind, since his executive order describing the state's new flag was not issued until 13 September 1861. This flag was essentially the Confederate first national color, with the canton extended to run the full length of the hoist as a vertical bar. Within the canton was the state's new seal in an oval surrounded by the motto in Roman letters over the seal's top, IN GOD IS OUR TRUST, and the name of the state below the seal. The seal itself featured several stands of arms, a cannon, a drum, cannon balls, and two flags—one a Confederate first national flag—beneath a live oak tree, with several ships at sea in the background. This scene was painted in natural colours.
Although on 4 December 1863 the legislature ordered the governor to provide 'each regiment and battalion in Confederate service from this state a suitable flag or ensign', the flags issued to the state's troops appear to have been various copies of the Army of Northern Virginia battle flags rather than state flags.
When Georgia seceded on 19 January 1861 a new flag was flown over the state's capital at Milledgeville. It was described as having the state's seal on a white field; however, traditionally a blue field was used, while a surviving state flag in the Museum of the
The governor of the C ommonwealth of Massachusetts presents a »pica/ white state Hag to the uth Massachusetts Infantry Regiment in 1861. Vote the elaborate tassels.
Confederacy has a red field. The red flag, with a five-pointed white star in the centre, had been tlown by the Augusta Battalion in 1861 when it took over the Augusta Arsenal.
According to Wells' Handbook, in the seal, 'In the centre of a circular white or silver field are three pillars, supporting an arch, around which are emblazoned the word "Constitution." The pillars arc symbolic of the three departments of the State government—the Legislative, the Judiciary, and the Executive: and on the one on the right, representing the Legislative, is the word "Wisdom;" on the second, representing the Judiciary, is the word "Justice:" and on the third, representing the Executive, is the word "Moderation." Near the right pillar is the figure of an officer with a drawn sword, denoting that the aid of the military is always ready to enforce respect and obedience to law.'
In at least one surviving example the state seal is painted on a blue field in natural colours with seven gold five-pointed stars, the centre one slightly larger than the others, with the bottom points just touching the bottom of the painted state seal. The riband hanging from the white temple pillars is red with yellow lettering; the soldier stands to the far left.
The state seal was used in the canton of a silk Confederate first national flag, within a ring of 11 white stars, by an unknown Georgia unit. This may have been common among the state's first troops. Otherwise, Georgia units apparently carricd regulation army colors in the field. Indeed, the state's governor apparently flew a version of the Army of Northern Virginia battle flag over his headquarters.
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