Pennsylvania

On 16 May 1861 Pennsylvania's legislature directed the governor to 'procurc regimental standards, to be inscribed with the numbers of those regiments respectively, on which shall be painted the arms of this Commonwealth, and the names of the actions in which the said regiments distinguished themselves.' The state's adjutant general placed orders for regulation US Army flags, except that the state seal was to be placed on the canton of the national color, with 34 stars arranged symmetrically around the seal. The seal was also to appear on cavalry standards and guidons. Every unit raised in Pennsylvania received at least one of these state colors, except for the 154th (only a battalion in strength), 186th, ry6th, 147th, 198th, ttjt>th, and 215th Infantry Regiments and the 19th, 20th, 21 st, and 22d Cavalry Regiments.

In the state seal, wrote Wells, lOn a white field is an escutcheon parted by a yellow or golden band or girdle, on which is represented a plough in its natural color. In the upper part of the shield, a ship under full sail is gliding smoothly over the waves of the sea, which are surmounted by an azure sky. At the lower part, on a green ground, are three golden sheaves of wheat, denoting that agriculture as well as commerce, is one of the primary reliances of the State. On the right of the shield is a stalk of maize, and on the left an olive branch. For the crest, on a wreath of olive flowers, is perched a bald eagle, with wings extended, holding in its beak a label, with the motto, "Virtue, Liberty, and Independence." *

Rhode Island

Rhode Island did not have an official flag, although colors bearing elements of the state seal, a fouled anchor under the word HOPE in a riband, do appear to have been used from time to time.

South Carolina

On 26 January 1S61 the state's legislature adopted a plain blue flag bearing a white crescent, points towards the top hoist corner, in the area where the canton would normally appear. In the centre of the field was a w hite oval extending from top to bottom, with a palmetto tree painted or embroidered in natural colours, although the committee adopted 'a golden Palmetto, upright'. On 28 January this was modified to a simple white palmetto tree on a dark blue field.

Several regiments in the Charleston, South Carolina, garrison adopted a color whose design had been suggested for the Confederate national color in the Charleston Mercury in March 1862, This had a white field, quartered, with the top and bottom quarter in red. A blue shield with a white border edged with a narrow blue border was placed in the centre where the four quarters met. The white letters

Sergeant Alexander Rogers holds the first .via te color of the 8j d Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment, which was presented in Dcccmhcr 1861. Sergeant Rogers was promoted to sergeant in the winter of ¡862—6 f and the dag h us retired in the summerof 1863. (Ronn Palm collection)

98th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry

Table A: Pennsylvania Infantry National Colors

There were two major manufacturers of national colors for Pennsylvania's infantry regiments: Horstmann & Brothers and Evans & Hassall, both of Philadelphia. Both featured painted state seals in their cantons, but there were slight variations between the flags each company made. Horstmann cantons measured about 385 inches by 24^ inches, while those made by Evans & Hassall measured 385 by 29^. Evans & Hassall's star arrangement in the cantons tended to be 6-6-5 over the seal and 5-6-6 under it, for 34 stars; and 6-6-5 over the seal and 6-6-6 under it, or 5-6-6 over the seal and 6-6-6 under it, for 35 star flags. Horstmann used 5-6-7 over the seal and 5-6-5 under it for a short time from September 1861, subsequently changing to 5-6-6-seal-6-6-5 for 34 star flags. Then it switched to 5-6-6-seal-6-6-6 until

Regiment

/ssue (date of issue J

Mater

Regiment

Issue ( date of issue)

Maker

7 Ith

ist

Evans & Massall

49th

ist

Evans & Hassatl

ist

Evans & Hassall

2d (Fall '64)

Horstmann

26th

ist

Evans & 1 lassall

50th

ist

Evans & Hassatl

27th

ist

Evans & Hassall

2d (Apr. '64)

Evans & Hassail

28th

ist

Evans & Hassall

51st

m

Evans & Hassail

2d (Feb. '65)

Evans & Hassall

2d (Apr. '64)

Evans & Hassail

29th

ist

Evans & Hassall

3d (July '64)

Horstmann

2d (Feb. '64)

Horstmann

5 2d

ist

Evans & Hassail

30th

ist

Horstmann

2d (May '65)

Horstmann

2d (Dec. '63)

Evans & Hassall

53d

ist

Evans & Hassail

31st

ist

Horstmann

2d (Mar. '64)

Horstmann

32d

ist

Horstmann

3d (June '65)

Horstmann (never

2d (Dec. '63)

Evans & Hassall

used)

33d

ist

Horstmann

54th

ist

Evans & Hassail

2d (Dcc. '63)

Evans Sc Hassall

2d (May'63)

Unk (captured 6

34th

ist

Horstmann

Apr. 1865)

2d (Dcc. '63)

Evans & Hassall

55th

ist

Evans & Hassail

35th

ist

Horstmann

2d (Nov. '64)

Horstmann

2d (Dec. '63)

Horstmann

56th

ist

Evans & Hassail

36th

ist

Horstmann

2d (Spring '64)

Evans & Hassail

2d (Dec. '63)

Unk (Captured 4

57th

ist

Evans & Hassail

May 1864)

2d (Feb. '64)

Horstmann

37th

ist

Horstmann

58th

ist

Evans & Hassail

2d (Dec. '63)

Horstmann

2d (Nov. '64)

Evans & Hassail

38th

[St

Horstmann

61st

ist

Evans & Hassail

2d (Dec. '63)

Horstmann

2d (Mar. '63)

Horstmann

39th

ist

Horstmann

62d

ist

Evans & Hassail

2d (Dec. '63)

Horstmann

63d

ist

Evans & Hassail

40th

ist

Horstmann

2d (Dec. '63)

Evans & Hassail

2d (Dec. '63)

Horstmann

67th

ist

Unk

41st

ist

Horstmann

2d (?)

A. Brandon (?)

2d (Dec. '63)

Horstmann

68th

ist

Horstmann

42(1

ist

Unk (lost 26 June

69 th

ist

Horstmann

1862)

2d (Dec. '63)

Evans & Hassail

2d (\lay '62)

Special présentation

71st

ist

Horstmann

45th

ist

Evans & Hassall

72d

ist

Horstmann

2d (Mar. '64)

Unk (lost)

73d

ist

Horstmann

3d (Dec.'64)

Horstmann

2d (Feb. '65)

Evans & Hassail

46th

ist

Evans & Hassall

74th

ist

Horstmann

2d (Mar. '64)

Horstmann

75th

ist

Horstmann

47th

ist

Evans 8t Hassall

2d (Aug. '64)

Horstmann

2d (Feb. '65)

Horstmann

76th

ist

Horstmann

48th

ist

Unk (lost)

2d (Jan. '65)

Horstmann

2d (Spring '64)

Horstmann

3d (July '65)

Horstmann

mid-1864, when it changed to 5~6-7-seal-6-6-5. Flags made under a May 1865 contract by Horstmann used a 5-6-7-seal-7-6"5 arrangement.

Evans painted the regimental designation as REGt. P. V.; REG: P.V.; REGt. PENNa. VOLs.; REG: PENNA. VOLS.; and REG'T P.V. , with the number added in the appropriate location. Horstmann designations were at first REGt. P.V., while their later flags were marked REG: P.V. and REG'T P.V. for volunteers and PENNa. REGt. for drafted militia regiments. As colors wore out most three-year regiments received more than one color, so that they carried flags made by both companies at one time or another.

Regiment

/ssue ( date of issue )

Maier

Regiment

Issue (date of issue)

Maker

77th

ist

Evans & Hassall

105th

ist

Horstmann

id (May '63)

Horstmann

106 t h

ist

Horstmann

3d ( Apr. '64)

Evans & Hassall

2d (Dec. '64)

Unk (lost 22 June

78th

ist

Evans & Hassall

'64)

2d {Jan.'64)

Evans & Hassall

107 th

ist

Horstmann

7Qth

ist

Evans & Hassall

logth

ist

Horstmann

2d (May '65)

Horstmann

iioth

ist

Horstmann

gist

ist

Evans & Hassall

2d (May '64)

Evans & Hassall

2d (Spr. '64)

I lorstmann

Ii Ith

ist

Horstmann

3d (Jan. '65)

Evans & Hassall

2d (Feb. '64)

Horstmann

82(1

lit

Horstmann

114th

ist

Horstmann

83d

ist

Unk

115th

ist

Horstmann

2d (May '63)

Horstmann

2d (Feb. '64)

Horstmann

84th

ist

Horstmann

Ii 6th

ist

Horstmann

85th

ist

Evans & Hassali

2d (Apr. '64)

Evans & Hassall

2d (Dec. '63)

Evans & Hassall

3d (Apr. '65)

Horstmann

87th

ist

Unk

I i8th-i37th

ist

Evans & Hassall

88th

ist

Horstmann

138 th

tst

Horstmann

90th

ist

Horstmann

i39th

ist

Horstmann

91st

ist

Horstmann

2d (Feb. '65)

Horstmann

2d (Feb. '64)

Horstmann

140 th-142d

ist

Horstmann

93d

ist

Evans & Hassall

143d

ist

Horstmann

2d (Mar. '64)

Horstmann

2d (Jan. -65)

Horstmann

95th

ist

Horstmann

145th

1st

Unk (lost 16 June

96th

ist

Evans & Hassall

'64)

97th

ist

Evans & Hassall

2d (Unk)

Horstmann

2d (Sept. '64)

Horstmann

147th

ist

1 lorstmann

98th

ist

Horstmann

2d (Mar. "64)

Horstmann

2d (Mar. '64)

Horstmann

148 th

ist

Unk (captured 25

991h

ist

Horstmann

Aug. '64)

tooth

ist

Horstmann

149 th-157 th

ist

Horstmann

2d (Oct. '64)

Evans & 1 lassal)

i58th-i69th

(miiitia)

Horstmann

lotst

ist

Unk (captured 20

i7tst-i7Qth

(militia)

Evans & 1 lassall

Apr. '64)

183d-! 84th

ist

Horstmann

2d (Spr. '65)

Horstmann

187 th

tst

Evans & Hassall

102(1

ist

Unk (lost s May

188 th

tst

Horstmann

'63)

190th-191 St

ist

Evans & Hassall

2d (Apr. '64)

Evans & Hassal)

200th-202d

ist

Horstmann

3d (Jan. '65)

Horstmann

205th-208th

1st

Evans & Hassall

103d

ist

Horstmann

2CX»th-2IIth

ist

Horstmann

104th

ist

Evans & 1 lassall

2i3th-2t4th

ist

Evans Sc Hassall

2d (Feb. '65)

Evans & Hassall

C.L.I., for Charleston Light Infantry, were placed on the shield of the flajr of this description carried by the 27th South Carolina Volunteer Infantry Regiment, which included the old Charleston Light Infantry. This also bore a battle honour for SECESSIONVILLE placed in the shield above the unit designation.

The first color of the 1st South Carolina Volunteers was plain blue, with an elaborate embroidery of flowers surrounding the words, in an upper semi-circle iST REGT and a lower semicircle S.C. VOLUNTEERS.

Tennessee

Tennessee had no official state flag at the war's outbreak; but on 25 April 18(1 [, before the state had even officially left the Union, a resolution was put before the state senate to have a state flag adopted. This was to be the Confederate first national flag, with the seal of the state replacing the stars in the canton. Since the Senate Committee on Federal Relations felt it unwise to adopt such a flag before the state had even seceded, the resolution was never acted upon.

However, such a flag was carried, at least by the 18th Tennessee Infantry Regiment at Fort Donelson in 1862; it was also marked with a unit designation. A variation of the Confederate first national flag, with the state capitol building surrounded by 13 stars painted in the canton, was carried by the 32d Tennessee Infantry Regiment. Another variation of the Confederate first national color carried by Tennessee troops had the motto 'Our Right is Our Might* painted in the canton. So the senate's suggested state flag, and variations of that flag, were used by a number of Tennessee's troops.

According to Wells the sea! had 4A white or silver circular field, the upper half of which is occupied on the right by a plough, in the centre by a sheaf of wheat, and on the left by a stalk of cotton. Underneath these emblems, extending across the entire middle of the field, is the word "Agriculture," denoting that the first reliance of the State should be upon the productions of the soil. The lower half is occupied by a loaded barge, with the word "Commerce" below the water, indicating that the prosperity ofall may be promoted through this means. Over

1st Battalion 75th Cavalry Regiment

The national /lag of the 2id Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry Regiment was made by JJi. Wilson after the actual fighting was over. It is, however, a fine example of a cavalry version of the state color. (Pennsylvania Capitol Preservation Committee)

The (kirk blue second state standard of the tjth Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, officially the i bid Pennsy Ivan ia Volunteers, was made by Horstmnnn Brothers in April iS6y. (Pennsylvania Capitol Preservation Committee)

Painting Pennsylvania State Seal

the sheaf of wheat are the numeral letters XVI., denoting that this was the sixteenth State admitted into the Union.'

Texas

Texas had been an independent republic from 1839 for almost a decade before joining the United States; and the flag that had been flown by the Republic of Texas became the flag of the State of Texas. This had i single white five-pointed star ccntred in a blue vertical bar running along the hoist, with two horizontal bars, the top in white and the bottom in red, running from the blue bar to the fly.

This flag w as carried by a number of Texas units, such as the ist and 2d Texas Infantry Regiments. That of the ist Texas, made in Richmond, had only battle honours for SEVEN FINES in a semi-circle above the star and GAINES FARM in a semi-circle, the words in white, below the star. That of the 2d

Texas, which was made in Texas, appears to have had the word SECOND in a white semi-circle above the star, and the word TEXAS in a semi-circle below the star, which was also surrounded by an olive wreath.

Other Texas troops carried variations of the 'Bonnie Blue Flag, which bore a single star'. That carried by the 8th Texas Cavalry Regiment {Terry's Texas Rangers) had a blue field with a large white star, 9^ ins. in radius, in its centre. Made of bunting, the 23 in. by 33 in. Hag had the unit designation TERRY'S TEXAS RANGERS in yellow letters over the star.

The single white star of Texas was also used on regulation flags to indicate what state the troops represented. For example, a single white five-pointed star was placed on the centre circle, or 'moon', of a llardee flag flown by the 6th and 15th Texas Infantry Regiment at the siege of Atlanta and battles of Franklin and Nashville.

5th Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery

The dark blue state standard of the 5th Pennsylvania Heavy Artillery Regiment, officially the 204th Pennsylvania Volunteers, was made by Evans & llassall in September 18(14, The unit's regimental color was also made by Evans & llassall and conformed to US Army regulations. (Pennsylvania Capitol Preservation Committee)

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