Usarmy Brigade Flags

No special flags were authorised for brigades in either army. However, several brigades, through especially heroic actions or because of geographic uniqueness, soon adopted nicknames and personalities all their own. In the Confederate Army these included the

Flag The Alamo

There is one error in this otherwise perfect picture of the Texas state flag th ing over the Alamo in

1S61—the red stripe should he under the white stripe. The canton is blue and the star is white.

Stonewall Brigade from Virginia and the Texas Brigade. In the Union Armies there were Wilder's Lightning Brigade, the Regular Brigade, the Iron Brigade, the Irish Brigade, and several brigades bearing local designations such as the Vermont, the Excelsior, the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), and the New Jersey Brigades. While the special Confederate brigades apparently did not carry unique flags, some Union brigades did.

The Iron Brigade was the only brigade made up of Western regiments in the Army of the Potomac. It was organised in the summer of 1861 with the 2d and 6th Wisconsin Infantry and the 19th Indiana Infantry Regiments. They were joined by the 7th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment in October 1861, and still later by the 24th Michigan Infantry Regiment. The brigade was assigned to I Corps.

In 1863 citizens of the states represented in the brigade then living in Washington DC ordered a special presentation color for the brigade from Tiffany & Co., New York. According to the New

There is one error in this otherwise perfect picture of the Texas state flag th ing over the Alamo in

1S61—the red stripe should he under the white stripe. The canton is blue and the star is white.

York Times: 'The flag is a regulation size and made of heavy dark blue silk. It is embellished by a handsome vignette of an eagle, shield and scroll motto, "E Pluribus Unium"—the same as on the ten dollar treasury note. The names of the principal battles in w hich the brigade has been engaged arc handsomely worked, each on a separate scroll. The vignette, the scroll work, and the name of each regiment composing the brigade—the Second, Sixth and Seventh Wisconsin, the Nineteenth Indiana, and the Twenty Fourth Michigan—are all worked in the flag with silk chenille, and the shading is most exquisitely done. A rich and heavy border adds to and completes the effect. The staff is mounted with a massive silver spear head. The flag is a gift of a number of gentlemen from the great states of W isconsin, Indiana and Michigan. It is a fit and elegant tribute to

Irish Brigade Flags

The preen flag of the t/lh It egiment, Massach usetts Volunteer Infantry (the Third Irish), was presented to the regiment in June ¡H6i. It mis the first of three Irish flags. Vote the gold shamrocks ¡¡round the American eagle. (Massachusetts Sta tc House, Bureau of Stale Office Buildings)

the heroism of one of the most glorious organizations in the entire army.' Battle honours were placed on the flag for GAINESVILLE, BULL RUN, SOUTH MOUNTAIN, ANTIETAM, FREDERICKSBURG and GETTYSBURG. It was presented to the brigade on 19 September 1863.

In November 1862, without orders, the 3d Brigade, 1st Division, Department of North Carolina adopted the designation 'The Red Star Brigade' and began flying a red flag with a white canton bearing a red five-pointed star. This flag lasted only a few months.

The only regulation special brigade flag flown within the Army of the Potomac was that of the 1st Brigade, 2d Division, V Corps, which was composed entirely of Regular Army officers and men. The Regular Brigade flag was originally red, from 24 March 1864; but on 30 April changed to blue, measuring some 18 ins. by 3 ft., with a white five-pointed star within a silver wreath on the field, and a silver fringe.

In the spring of 1862, during the Peninsula Campaign, the reporter George Alfred Townsend visited the Army of the Potomac's Irish Brigade. There he noted that 'Every adjunct of the place was strictly I libernian. The emerald green standard entwined with the red, white, and blue; the gilt eagles on the flag-poles held the shamrock sprig in their beaks; the soldiers lounging on guard had "69" or "88", the number of their regiments, stamped on a green hat-band ...'

The brigade, part of the II Corps, initially included the 63d, 69th, and 88th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiments. After sending oft" the non-Irish 29th Massachusetts, the brigade was reinforced by the 28th Massachusetts and 116th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiments, both also largely composed of Irish volunteers. It ceased to exist in June 1864, although a 2d Irish Brigade, with the same regiments save for the 116th and reinforced by several New York heavy artillery regiments, was created in November 1864.

The Irish Brigade did not carry a unique, brigade-wide flag; however, most of its regiments carried green flags, as Townsend mentioned, bearing Irish symbols—the harp and shamrocks. The one regiment which apparently did not carry a unique Irish flag was the 116th Pennsylvania, which carried only a Pennsylvania state color and a regulation regimental color,

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