Bullock Road

The easternmost units - although swamped by the fleeing troops of XI corps -form a tenuous defensive line which is holding by 2000 hours as the fog rolls in once more.

Taken by surprise at his HQ, Howard attempted to rally his men around the flag but this had little effect. Retreating Union troops slammed into those behind them and the entire Union line threatened to collapse.

The easternmost units - although swamped by the fleeing troops of XI corps -form a tenuous defensive line which is holding by 2000 hours as the fog rolls in once more.

Schurz Berry Whipple Williams Geary Sykes Hancock 8 Griffin Robinson

10 Hooker's headquarters at Chancellorsville

11 Sickles

12 Barlow

13 8th Pennsylvania Cavalry For a full detailed unit description see ORDER OF BATTLE page 27

General Amiel T. Whipple was commanding one of Sickles' units when a Confederate sniper sighted him and fired, hitting him seriously. Transported to Washington, he died - the second one of Sickles' III Corps commanders killed by a Southern marksman.

Lieutenant-Colonel Frank Huger commanded Alexander's battalion after Alexander became acting chief of artillery. He served through Petersburg. His men boasted that they never ran, and that after every battle they buried their own dead.

OPPOSITE Taken just shortly after the battle of Chancellors-ville, this spot shows blasted trees and heavy woods north of the trail Jackson was following when he was shot.

regiments facing west - the 58th NY 82nd Ohio, and 26th Wisconsin. They stood and poured fire into the Confederate juggernaut, but even that was not enough to stop the onrushing horde of Jackson's men pursuing the fleeing Union soldiers. Schurz's division collapsed back into Steinwehr's. Artillery caissons added to the confusion, with panicked horses and riders shattering Union lines, running east, effectively turning the Union right flank and collapsing it. Most Union resistance was futile.

One Union unit which stood was Dilger's Battery I of the 1st Ohio. Dilger's six Napoleons fired steadily into Jackson's oncoming legions. When the Confederates were within a hundred yards, Dilger limbered, retreated, unlimbered and fired again. That stalled the advance. The Confederates ignored the fleeing German troops and concentrated instead on the artillery, shooting the horses and making the artillerymen abandon the guns. Private Darwin Cody of Dilger's battery summed up Union feeling on the lack of infantry support for the artillery when he said, "Damn the Dutch!"

Howard attempts to stem the flood

When Howard heard the row, he asked what was happening, and was told his men were routing. Seeing the retreating troops he said, "Such a mass of fugitives I haven't seen since Bull Run." Grabbing the colors and mounting, he clamped the flag with the stump of his right arm and galloped toward the firing and the mass of retreating men, hoping to inspire and rally them. He may have been unprepared, but he was brave.

Howard's appearance had little effect on the retreating soldiers until he encountered part of Bushbeck's brigade, the 154th NY The 154th stood. Fragments of other units rallied with them, occupying rifle pits near Dowdall's Tavern which faced west. There were 4,000 Yankees. Volleys cut "roads" through the onrushing Confederates, who would then re-form and commence their advance again. The Union infantry held up the Confederate advance for almost half an hour, and then they too broke under the relentless momentum of Jackson's men.

If there was a problem, it was that the Southern advance was too fast. Rodes was everywhere on his horse, urging all who could hear him to advance, "Over friend or foe." Individually, soldiers stopped to fire and became separated from their units; Colston's advancing support units merged with Rodes' troops. The problem accentuated as A.R Hill's men moved up. The Southern forces were hopelessly mixed within an hour, but all advanced steadily.

Colquitt was still nervous. He thought he sighted Union cavalry to his right and slowed his advance, facing his men south. Ramseur was behind Colquitt, and he fumed at the needless and overly cautious delay. Eventually Colquitt resumed his advance, but the damage to Jackson's carefully laid out timetable of advance had been done. The units were out of sync, allowing many Union troops to escape which otherwise would have been captured.

Seeing some units outdistancing others, Jackson rode with his men, crying, "Press them, press them!"Jackson paused at one point to congratulate Beckham's horse artillery, and then he complimented Rodes on his success. Jackson thanked God for his victory. In an hour and a half his men had pressed the Union XI Corps well over a mile from its initial position. They were within two miles of Hooker's headquarters at Chancellorsville. But daylight was fast fading.

Unformed, the men of XI Corps routed, fleeing. They ran into Sickles' Corps, which folded on itself and had to fight long and hard to re-form even a semblance of a line. By the time the Union had a tenuous line, it was 2000 hours and the fog was rolling back in.

Major Huey's 8th PA cavalry was unaware of the exact situation with XI Corps. Darkness gathered. They were waiting at Hazel Grove for orders to pursue what they thought were retreating Southerners. He was ordered to find stragglers and help them rejoin their commands. Using a road moving northward and then east, he began to see shadowy figures which he assumed to be stragglers. He did

Hiram Berry was a brave Federal officer who rallied his men on the Turnpike and held up the Southern advance. He was killed while crossing the road to relay orders.

not expect to find Southern infantry, and certainly did not anticipate running into the Confederate advance. Moving east on the road, lie encountered the faltering advance of Rodes' men, finally recognizing them as the enemy. Huey could not turn without exposing his men needlessly, so he decided to charge, break through, and once on the Plank Road, force his way east to Chancellorsville. Southerner fire shattered his charge. Part of the 8th veered into the woods. Three officers near Huey were killed. I luey forced his way north. The 8th PA lost 76 men.

Meanwhile Hooker told General Hiram Berry to "receive the enemy on your bayonets." A half mile west of Chancellorsville, Berry formed his line and waited, staring into the gathering darkness. Meade formed V Corps along the north edge of Mineral Springs Road toward Reynolds, who guarded U.S. Ford. General Alpheus Williams ofSlocum's XII Corps extended the Union line down the Plank Road, linking up with Berry's left. This completed the isolation of the XI Corps positions. It was 2100 hours.

Berrv and Hays turned their men with difficulty. They rallied some of the closer XI Corps units and met the onrushing Confederates with musket fire and bayonets. The Confederate advance slowed. Sickles turned his attention to Jackson, and with Pleasonton's cavalry at Hazel Grove Hill and Union batteries emplaced on Fairview Knoll. Jackson found his advance enfiladed by Union fire coming from his right.

Jackson had not gained as much ground as he wanted, and although he knew the Union had formed a defensive line, he was aware of how unsettled that line was. Even though it was misty and there would be fog later, the moon was high and gave off enough light for night operations. He knew of Sickles' earlier predicament and hoped to exploit it.

Hiram Berry was a brave Federal officer who rallied his men on the Turnpike and held up the Southern advance. He was killed while crossing the road to relay orders.

A terrible price for victory

Jackson ordered his commanders to take time to reform and try to realign. Rodes and Colston would regroup and A.P. Hill would assume the front, preparing for a night assault. When Hill asked Jackson what he should do, Jackson replied, "Press them; cut them off from the United States Ford. Hill."

While his commanders regrouped, Jackson would take his staff and assess the situation. A private in the 9th VA cavalry, David Kyle, had grown up in the area and knew it well. He would guide Jackson's reconnaissance.

With evening fog came the damp. Jackson pulled on his raincoat as protection. So far there was moonlight to enable Jackson to review Union positions, because he was certain the unsteady Union troops would give way if he could just find the right place to push them. It was 2100 hours.

With his staff, Jackson began scouting the back roads, looking for a weakness or an opening for Hill that would let him advance and totally rout the Army of the Potomac. As usual, Jackson gave little thought to his own safety or how exposed his staff would be in the no-man's land between Union and Confederate lines. Occasional shots, followed by nervous bursts of musketry, broke the early evening stillness. Aware of the presence of Union cavalry because of the 8th Pennsylvanian's earlier charge, Confederate pickets were alert for the sound of horses approaching from the north or east.

HOWARD ATTEMPTS TO RALLY XI CORPS When Howard heard the commotion of the routing troops from Von Gilsa's brigade, he ran outside to see what the situation was. Upon discovering that his corps' flank had been turned by the Confederates who were pouring out of the woods, he realized the scale of his misjudgement. Mounting his horse, he clamped the flag with the stump of his right arm, and rode toward the mass of fleeing Union soldiers in an attempt to stem the retreat.

How Owns Stonewall Jackson Mine Arizona
ABOVE This gives the reader a small feel for a Federal reserve battery of light artillery, such as those who held Hazel Grove or Fairview.

BELOW, RIGHT Little Sorrel was Jackson's favorite horse. After Jackson was wounded, the horse bolted but was recaptured. Later Little Sorrel was stabled by an admirer of Jackson's until the horse's death.

A mile east of Dowdall's, the Mountain Road went north. Jackson's party advanced at a walk. Ahead he heard sounds of men preparing barricades: Union lines. Turning, Jackson headed the scouting party back toward Confederate positions.

Men of the 18th North Carolina heard approaching hoofbeats. They called out passwords, aware of the possibility of a Union probe or attack. There was no counter-sign. Nervously they shot into the dark, fearing a Union attack, firing several volleys before an officer ordered them to cease fire - they were shooting their own troops!

LEFT Taken just after the battle, this picture shows all that remained of the Chancellor House after the fire which destroyed it shortly after Hooker moved his headquarters.

A.P. Hill was a proud man who had a feud with Jackson over a slight. When Jackson was wounded, Hill briefly commanded II Corps until a debilitating wound caused him to relinquish command just when he was most needed.

The damage was done. Jackson was severely wounded in his left lower and upper arm and his right hand. He was bleeding profusely from a severed blood vessel in liis upper arm, and a tourniquet was applied. Litter bearers were enlisted and carried the pain-wracked Jackson away from the scene. When inquiring who was on the litter, soldiers were told, "a Confederate officer." It would harm morale to let the men know that Jackson was down. One man recognized Jackson on the litter, and the words flitted fearfully along the lines: Stonewall was down. Hill is in command, Jackson ordered, forgetting Hill's feud with him and recognizing that the South's need for an experienced commander was more important than his pride. Alter passing command, Jackson allowed himself to be removed from the field.

A.P. Hill briefly commanded the corps until wounded by shrapnel, which kept him from walking. Although far from mortal, the wound was disabling, and Hill passed over Rodes, who he felt was too inexperienced to command a corps and put Stuart in command. Stuart, a cavalry officer, had never commanded infantrv. Standing and fighting, slogging ahead despite shot and shell is different from hitting and running, from probing and then galloping away if the enemv appears to have the advantage. Despite that. Hill passed command to Stuart.

From the time he arrived on the field, J.E.B. Stuart was aggressive, l.ee sent him a message telling him to move with decision. "The enemy... must be pressed... dispossess them of Chancellorsville. I will join you as soon as I can... but let nothing delay ... driving the enemy... from his positions."

At a house near Dowdall's Tavern, Dr. Maguire administered first aid to the wounded general. Then Jackson was moved to the field hospital located near Dowdall's Tavern. Shortly after 0200 at the field hospital Maguire amputated Jackson's left arm. After Jackson regained consciousness, he was Removed to Guiney's Station at the rear of the Southern position. There he was placed in a room at the Chandler's plantation office.

The arm would start to heal but he would pass away in little more than a week from complications brought on by pneumonia.

When he first heard of Jackson's wound, Lee said, "Victory is deai lv bought which deprives us of the services of General Jackson even for a short time."

A.P. Hill was a proud man who had a feud with Jackson over a slight. When Jackson was wounded, Hill briefly commanded II Corps until a debilitating wound caused him to relinquish command just when he was most needed.

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