Info

Green Regiment City of London 503 297 about 70 863

City of Westminster Trained Bands 1,084 854 about 80 2,018

Musketeers Pikemen Officers Total

Borough of Southwark Trained Bands 868 456 about 70 1-394

William Levett, who compiled this report, estimated the strength of the Auxiliary Regiments of the City and suburbs at 1,000 men each. The only exception was The Green Auxiliaries with a strength of 1,200.

interspersed with small forts, the 'Lines of Communication'. Once these were completed, the six Trained Band regiments of London, three from the suburbs enclosed by the defences, and nine 'Auxiliary' regiments raised in addition (six from London and one from each of the suburbs) were brought under one authority, the Committee for London Militia.

Although the officers of these new regiments were picked with an eye to their political reliability as well as their military capacity, the real basis of these soldiers' loyalties was to their families and their homes, not the Parliament cause. They supported the Earl of Essex to oppose the king's march on London after Edgehill in literal self-defence. Their commander Philip Skippon's famous exhortation— 'Come my Boys, my brave Boys, let us pray heartily and fight heartily, I will run the same fortunes and hazards with you, remember the Cause is for God; and for the defence of your selves, your wives, and children: Come my honest brave boys pray heartily and God will bless us' probably meant more to them than any political slogan.

Once committed the citizens were persuaded the following year to contribute 5,000 men to march with Essex's army to the relief of Gloucester, on the principle that it was better to defend London by fighting away from home than on their own doorsteps. Thereafter London and its suburbs provided brigades of infantry for service with the armies of the Earl of Essex, Sir William Waller and Richard Browne. This assistance was critically important, as in 1643 and 1644 the southern Parliamentary armies lacked enough infantry to take the field without brigades of City infantry. With the creation of the New Model Army their support was no longer so necessary, and no new brigades marched out of the City.

The Infantry of the Civil War: Organisation

As shown above English military theory followed the new Dutch style; this led the English to mirror the Dutch company and regimental organisation for their infantry units, but even so this offered a fair amount of latitude. The United Provinces attem pted initially to standardise their companies, and in 1599 set a strength of 135 officers and men, these being a captain, a lieutenant, an ensign, two sergeants, three corporals, two drummers, a clerk, a chirurgeon, a provost, three pages, 45 pikemen, 30 musketeers and 44 calivermen. In 1609 the caliver was withdrawn from companies in Dutch service, and thereafter they consisted of approximately equal proportions of musketeers and pikemen. The reduction in the actual number of 'shot' was countered by the increased killing-power of the musket over the caliver, so contemporary opinion considered the actual effect on an opposing formation to be about the same.

The Dutch did not successfully achieve standards for company or regimental strengths, as the drill manual for English troops in Dutch service shows: 'Companies are compacted into Regiments com-

Structure of a Regiment in the Earl of Essex's Army, 1642

Regimental StaJJ

Structure of a Regiment in the Earl of Essex's Army, 1642

Regimental StaJJ

Colonel

Chirurgeon (Surgeon)

Lieutenant-Colonel

Preacher

Sergeant-Major

Waggon-Master

Quartermaster

Drum Major

Provost Marshal

2 Chirurgeon's Mates

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