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A statuette from Cromwell House of a Trained Band fifer c.i638. Fifers do not appear in contemporary pay records but other references show they were in service, possibly paid for by their colonels personally. (By courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)

A statuette from Cromwell House of a Trained Band fifer c.i638. Fifers do not appear in contemporary pay records but other references show they were in service, possibly paid for by their colonels personally. (By courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)

Priming Flask

Dl>: Musketeer, King's Oxford Army, 1643 This soldier wears a 'Powder-Bag' containing paper cartridges with a flask containing priming powder suspended beneath it. These were issued as a temporary expedient to overcome a shortage of bandoleers. An order for the delivery of stores for the manufacture of these powder-bags shows that they were made of'Calfe skinns tanned and oyled'. His uniform coat, breeches and montero cap are part of the issue of 1643 provided by the entrepreneur Thomas Bushell who reclothed the Oxford infantry in suits of all-red or all-blue.

Dj: 'Firelock' Captain Sanford's Firelocks, 1643 With the agreement of a truce in Ireland, the English forces there could be released to support the king's cause in England. Captain Sanford's Company was a part of the contingent landed at Mostyn in November 1643. Hopton commented that these experienced soldiers were 'bold, hardy men, and excellantly well officer'd, but the common men verie mutenous and shrewdly infected with rebellious humour of England'. This soldier wears the new coat issued on his arrival in England and carries a 'dog-lock' musket, the 'firelock' which gives the company its name. This type of weapon was usually carried by artillery guards, but several independent companies in the King's Army were wholly equipped with them, examples being Sanford's and Langley's from Ireland and Prince Rupert's 'Firelocks'.

E: Tavern: Colonel Samuel Jones's Regiment, 1643 The most common relaxations of soldiers were drinking, smoking, gambling with cards or dice, and, as some said, quarrelling with one another. They also indulged in some field sports when in camp, such as those described in the ballad The Gallant She-Soldier.

'For other manly practices she gain's the love of all,

For leaping and for running or wrestling for a fall,

For cudgels or for cuffing, if that occasion were,

There's hardly one of ten men that might with her compare.'

A set of pikeman's armour: helmet, gorget, back and breast plates, and tassets. This set is too elaborately decorated for ordinary issue, and would have been made for an officer or a wealthy Trained Band soldier. (By courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)

Detail from a portrait of Sir George Wharton, showing a rare contemporary view of Civil War infantry. Note that these musketeers have abandoned their musket rests; and the size of the drum compared with the drummer. The portrait shows these infantry in coats of several different colours. (National Army Museum)

Detail from a portrait of Sir George Wharton, showing a rare contemporary view of Civil War infantry. Note that these musketeers have abandoned their musket rests; and the size of the drum compared with the drummer. The portrait shows these infantry in coats of several different colours. (National Army Museum)

In the absence of barracks soldiers were usually quartered in private houses or barns, the owners being responsible for supplying them with food and drink. Even when provisions were paid for soldiers made poor guests, as can be seen from the comments of one involuntary host: 'My House is, and hath been full of soldiers this fortnight, such uncivil drinkers and thirsty souls that a barrel of good beer trembles at the sight of them and the whole house is nothing but a rendezvous of tobacco and spitting'. Soldiers in garrisons were usually better behaved than those in the marching armies, since they were often local men, and it was easier to obtain justice for misdemeanours. This plate shows Parliament soldiers of Colonel Samuel Jones's Regiment carousing in a tavern in Farnham, where they garrisoned the castle and town.

Ei : Fifer

The only musicians on the official establishment of an infantry regiment were the two drummers allowed for each company. It is clear from contemporary references and illustrations, however, that both fifcrs and drummers were to be found in some units. Sir James Turner's comment

'any Captain may keep a Piper [FiferJ in his Company, and maintain him too, for no pay is allowed him', may explain the absence of these musicians on surviving muster-rolls. This man stands playing in a posture seen in several contemporary illustrations. Note the broad silver trim to his coat, and the cylindrical fife-case slung on its own shoulder belt.

Es: Musketeer Ej: Pikeman

Two soldiers from the garrison, one wearing the regimental green coat while the other has cast his aside as he concentrates on his cards. Samuel Jones's Regiment was typical of those which served in garrison but contributed companies or commanded

An example of a Civil War secret code. These were basically simple, with particular numbers representing individuals, places and articles such as men, money and munitions. Other numbers represent each letter of the alphabet. This code was used in correspondence between Lord Digby and the Parliamentarian Major-General Richard Browne.

bodies from time to time for service with the Marching Armies. These regiments kept up their strength better than most, as they were better able to recruit, and fewer of their men deserted or died of the camp sicknesses endemic in the field. I he rust stains seen on the coat worn by E3 show him to be a pikeman who usually wears armour.

F: Skirmish: The Westminster Trained Bands at

Basing House, 1643 In order to achieve the best effect from the slow rate of fire of the matchlock musket, musketeers were formed into bodies six or eight deep. Each rank would then fire in succession in one of several precise manoeuvres. In some of these the body would stand its ground while firing, in some it would advance, and in others it would retire. This was the Dutch style most commonly used by Parliament troops at the outbreak of the Civil War. In this way well-drilled infantry could keep up a continuous fire, but the emphasis here is on 'well-drilled'—and this scene shows the unfortunate experience of the

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