Or

The true manner how her" doe exereife her ;

company of Souldiers in her own Countrey in a J warlike manners with feme other new-f und ipcrtmentJ, and pretty extnvag'rtcs fitting for ill Chriftiinpciforocakiiovv.

company of Souldiers in her own Countrey in a J warlike manners with feme other new-f und ipcrtmentJ, and pretty extnvag'rtcs fitting for ill Chriftiinpciforocakiiovv.

Montero Cap Musketeer

'tinted in the yeare. When her did her enemy jeere, 1643.

'tinted in the yeare. When her did her enemy jeere, 1643.

Frontispiece of a satirical pamphlet printed shortly after the Battle of Edgehill. Its text is a pornographic parody of the usual instructions for the drill postures—the first pornographic drill book. . . The antiquated dress of the Welshmen illustrated is part of the satire, and it would be wrong to assume Welsh infantry actually looked like this. (British Library)

illustration of a drummer of the Gardes Françaises, c. 1632. The coat colour, red, was that of the Lifeguard at this time, and the design on the drum itself is taken from the well-known portrait of Sir Edmund Walker, the King's Secretary at War. Note particularly the size of the drum and the 'underarm' method of beating it

C: Plunder: The Earl of Essex's Army 1642 Many soldiers on both sides took the opportunities offered by the disruption of Civil War to intimidate and plunder civilians. For the bored soldiers of the Earl of Essex's Army this was a popular pastime in the suburbs of London, and later in the counties as they marched on campaign. They had no authority to do anything more than search for arms, and even then only under the authority of an officer. In fact, as contemporary records show, soldiers plundered at will, showing pretended papers of authority if challenged. When queried by the local sheriff on one occasion they simply refused to let him read the papers, and when he seized their stolen property they returned in greater numbers to recover it and then sold it in the streets. Here an elderly Catholic sits in despair as his home is stripped bare.

Ci: Musketeer, Hampden's Regiment The Ringleader waves a paper claiming it gives him authority for his activity. On enlistment in 1642 Parliament soldiers were supposed to be issued with coats, shoes, shirts, snapsacks and caps. It is not clear whether the use of the word 'caps' at this time

meant anything more precise than headgear, and there is some doubt whether those mentioned in Parliament's orders of 6th August 1642 were-ever actually issued. Three styles of headgear are known to have been worn: a Montero cap,' a broad-brimmed felt hat, or a Monmouth cap. Breeches were not a general issue for soldiers in the Parliament army until their re-clothing after the debacle at Lostwithiel in 1644, and each continued to wear those he had when he enlisted, or replaced them by theft when possible. This man wears the green uniform coat of his regiment, with its yellow lining showing where the cuifs are turned back, and a Montero cap. He carries his cheap cross-hiked sword on a baldric, and wears the bandoleer which contains powder and shot for the musket he has left in camp. The matchcord he uses to fire his musket is looped over the bandoleer.

C2: Musketeer, Thomas Ballard's Regiment This man wears a broad-brimmed felt hat with a political pamphlet thrust behind the hatband, and the grey coat of his regiment. His equipment is similar to that of Ci, but note the more modern pattern of sword and the different style of bandoleer. Parliament obtained equipment for

A statuette from Cromwell House of a Trained Band drummer c.1638; and a surviving example of a 17th century drum. (By courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)

A statuette from Cromwell House of a Trained Band drummer c.1638; and a surviving example of a 17th century drum. (By courtesy of the Board of Trustees, Royal Armouries)

17th Century Cavalry Coat

their new regiments from a number of different sources: the arsenal at the Tower of London, the military stores of the 'Irish Adventurers' (private subscribers for forces to suppress the Irish revolt), the armouries of the London Guilds, and purchase from abroad. A variety of different styles of equipment could be seen in use by the same regiment.

Cj: Pikeman, Lord Robartes' Regiment

The simple set of armour he wears over his red regimental coat has been blackened, a common precaution against rust. He wears a knitted

'Monmouth' cap, a popular style for pikemen as it provided useful padding for the helmet worn in action.

D: Training: Royalist Musketeers The three musketeers are each equipped in a different style. The first carries a heavy-pattern musket with the musket-rest it requires, and a bandoleer. The second has a lighter musket and has discarded his musket-rest; he carries his ammunition in a 'Powder-Bag' on his waist belt. The third carries a 'dog-lock' musket with the usual bandoleer. Regardless of the type of equipment, continuous training was required to achieve proficiency with a musket.

Di: Musketeer, Royal Army, 1642 This volunteer still wears the clothes he enlisted in, with a red hatband to show his allegiance to his king. His heavy musket is an old-fashioned model, one of many seized by the king as the county Trained Bands were disarmed to provide weapons for the King's Army. Even so, this man is fortunate to have a complete set of equipment, as Clarendon's comments on the state of the army show: 'By all those means together, the Foot, all but three or four hundred, who marched without any weapon but a Cudgel, were Arm'd with Musquets, and Bags for their Powder, and Pikes; but in the whole Body, there was not a Pikeman had a Corslet, and very few Musqueteers who had Swords'. This is an exaggeration as there would certainly have been a substantial number of sets of pikemen's armour in the Trained Band arsenals, but the King's Army was certainly very poorly equipped when it was first raised.

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