Observations upon Gesars co-mentarie.s.

CB\- Clement ErcsruvNDES', Kernfmhlaruet of til*.' Clitir of Loxvok

Frontispiece of Clement Edmonds' Observations Upon Caesar's Commentaries. This included as an appendix one of the earliest versions of the new Dutch style of drill published in English. The image above the title is Henry, Prince of Wales, the ill-fated elder brother of Charles I.

came to drawing men together for training, particularly in areas where a man from the next county was a stranger to be viewed with suspicion, but it also meant that few commanders had any military experience. The Crown made attempts to overcome this by introducing Muster Masters, professional soldiers who would inspect the soldiers' arms, assist in their training and report on their state of readiness. This met with varying degrees of success, as the county might refuse to pay too zealous a Muster Master while a lax one might be paid, popular but ineffective.

In theory the Trained Bands were to be trained regularly in small bodies and brought together once every three years or so for a General Muster of the County. City companies could be mustered together easily, but in the counties the companies could only be combined at General Musters for training in fighting formations. The level of confusion on such occasions can be imagined.

The equipment of the Trained Bands was the same as that of the regular soldiers, which will be described later; but it was often defective, even ancient, as the citizens charged with providing it tried to do so as cheaply as possible. Another common practice was to exchange arms, that is to borrow them for a Muster from a friend whose company was to be inspected on a different day. Muster Masters tried to deal with this by having arms marked with a distinctive company sign, but the practice continued.

Experimental equipment: frontispiece of William Neade's The Double-armed Man. The author was an archery enthusiast who hoped to combine the offensive qualities of the bow with the defensive of the pike. It was popular with military theorists, but was never used on active service.

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