Where to Learn More

HarpWeek. The Impeachment of Andrew Johnson. [Online] http://www.im-peach-andrewjohnson.com/ (accessed on October 10, 1999).

Malone, Mary. Andrew Johnson. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 1999.

McKitrick, Eric L. Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960. Reprint, New York: Oxford University Press,


National Park Foundation. Andrew Johnson National Historic Site. [Online] http://www.nationalparks.org/guide/parks/andrew-johns-1928.htm (accessed on October 10, 1999).

President Andrew Johnson Museum and Library. [Online] http://www.inusa. com/tour/tn/knoxvill/johnson.htm (accessed on October 10, 1999).

Simpson, Brooks D. The Reconstruction Presidents. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.

Trefousse, Hans L. Andrew Johnson: A Biography. New York: W. W. Norton,

1989. Reprint, Newtown, CT: American Political Biography Press, 1998.

Trefousse, Hans L. Impeachment of a President: Andrew Johnson, the Blacks, and Reconstruction. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1975. Reprint, New York: Fordham University Press, 1999.

Joseph E. Johnston

Born February 3, 1807 Cherry Grove, Virginia Died March 21, 1891 District of Columbia

Confederate general Led Army of Tennessee against Union general William T. Sherman's forces during Atlanta campaign

Born February 3, 1807 Cherry Grove, Virginia Died March 21, 1891 District of Columbia

Andrew Fordham Atlanta

I oseph Johnston's reputation as a Civil War general is a I mixed one. On the one hand, he became known as one of the Confederacy's most sensible and intelligent military leaders. Careful and crafty, he never sent his troops into battle rashly. This reluctance to commit troops to battle without good cause understandably made Johnston very popular with many of the soldiers under his command. But critics of Johnston argued that he avoided conflict on too many occasions, such as during the 1863 Vicksburg Campaign and the 1864 Atlanta Campaign. This criticism, coupled with his bitter feud with Confederate president Jefferson Davis (1808-1889; see entry) has made Johnston's Civil War performance a subject of continued debate among students and historians.

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