Where to Learn More

Alexander, Bevin. Lost Victories: The Military Genius of Stonewall Jackson. New York: Holt, 1992.

Bennett, Barbara J. Stonewall Jackson: Lee's Greatest Lieutenant. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett Press, 1991.

Farwell, Bryon. Stonewall: A Biography of General Thomas J. Jackson. New York: Norton, 1992.

Pflueger, Lynda. Stonewall Jackson: Confederate General. Springfield, NJ: Enslow, 1997.

Robertson, James I., Jr. Stonewall Jackson: The Man, the Soldier, the Legend. New York: Macmillan, 1997.

Royster, Charles. The Destructive War: William Tecumseh Sherman, Stonewall Jackson, and the Americans. New York: Knopf, 1991.

Southern California Stonewall Jackson Society. Stonewall Jackson Homepage. [Online] http://home.san.rr.com/stonewall/ (accessed on October 10, 1999).

Stonewall Jackson House. [Online] http://www.stonewalljackson.org/ (accessed on October 10, 1999).

Andrew Johnson

Born December 29, 1808 Raleigh, North Carolina Died July 31, 1875 Greeneville, Tennessee

Seventeenth president of the United States Became the first president to face impeachment when Congress disagreed with his

Reconstruction policies

Andrew Johnson

Born December 29, 1808 Raleigh, North Carolina Died July 31, 1875 Greeneville, Tennessee

Andrew Johnson became president of the United States in April 1865, when Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865; see entry) was assassinated. He took charge of the country just as the Civil War ended and presided over the difficult period in American history known as Reconstruction (1865-1877). A Southerner by birth, Johnson soon pardoned (officially forgave) Confederate officials and established lenient (easy) conditions for the Southern states to return to the Union. Many Northerners, and especially Republican leaders in the U.S. Congress, worried that Johnson's Reconstruction policies would allow Confederate leaders to return to power and continue to discriminate against blacks. Congress ended up putting its own policies into effect, while Johnson fought them every step of the way. In 1868, Congressional leaders impeached the president (brought him up on legal charges in an attempt to remove him from office), but Johnson kept his job by a single vote.

"I am unwilling, of my own volition, to walk outside of the Union which has been the result of a Constitution made by the patriots of the Revolution."

Andrew Johnson. (Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration.)

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