Where to Learn More

Goff, Richard D. Confederate Supply. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1969.

The Gorgas House. [Online] http://www.ua.edu/gorgasmain.html (accessed on October 10, 1999).

Vandiver, Frank E. Ploughshares into Swords: Josiah Gorgas and Confederate Ordnance. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1952. Reprint, College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1994.

Wakelyn, Jon L. "Josiah Gorgas" in Leaders of the American Civil War. Edited by Jon L. Wakelyn and Charles F. Ritter. Westwood, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.

Wiggins, Sarah Woolfolk, ed. The Journals of Josiah Gorgas, 1857-1878. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1995.

Ulysses S. Grant

Born April 27, 1822 Point Pleasant, Ohio Died July 23, 1885 Mount McGregor, New York

Union general who captured Vicksburg and defeated Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending the Civil War

Eighteenth president of the United States

Ulysses S. Grant

Born April 27, 1822 Point Pleasant, Ohio Died July 23, 1885 Mount McGregor, New York

Ulysses S. Grant was one of the greatest—and most unlikely—military commanders in American history. Prior to the Civil War, he struggled to provide for his family, first as a soldier and then as a businessman. But when the war began, he quickly showed that he was one of the North's top military leaders. During the first two years of the conflict, his victories at Fort Donelson, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga helped the Union seize control of the Confederacy's western states.

Grant then moved to the war's eastern theater (a large geographic area in which military operations take place), where he was given command of all the Union armies. Beginning in the spring of 1864, he brought the full power of the Union forces against the South. Grant's merciless use of sustained pressure against the weary armies and citizens of the Confederacy eventually forced the South to surrender in 1865. Four years later, Grant became president of the United States. But the North's greatest military hero never really learned how to be a good political leader, and his two terms in the White House were marked by scandal.

"I have but one sentiment now. We have a government and laws and a flag and they must be sustained. There are but two parties now: traitors and patriots."

Ulysses S. Grant. (Courtesy of Colonial Press.)

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