Where to Learn More

Blight, David W. Frederick Douglass' Civil War: Keeping Faith in Jubilee. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.

Davis, William C., Brian C. Pohanka, and Don Troiani. Civil War Journal: The Leaders. Nashville, TN: Rutledge Hill Press, 1997.

Douglass, Frederick. The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass. Hartford, CT, Park Publishing, 1881. Reprint, Grand Rapids, MI: Candace Press, 1996.

Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. New York: Miller, Orton and Mulligan, 1855. Reprint, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Boston: Anti-slavery Office, 1845. Reprint, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1997.

Frederick Douglass Museum & Cultural Center. [Online] http://www.ggw. org/freenet/f/fdm/index.html (accessed on October 9, 1999).

Frederick Douglass National Historic Site. [Online] http://www.nps.gov/ frdo/freddoug.html (accessed on October 9, 1999).

Frederick Douglass Papers. [Online] http://www.iupui.edu/~douglass/ (accessed on October 9, 1999).

Huggins, Nathan. Slave and Citizen: The Life of Frederick Douglass. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.

McFeeley, William S. Frederick Douglass. New York: Norton, 1991. Russell, Sharman. Frederick Douglass. New York: Chelsea House, 1992.

Emma Edmonds

Born December 1841 New Brunswick, Canada Died September 5, 1889 La Porte, Texas

Union soldier, nurse, and spy Disguised herself as a man to serve in the Union Army

Emma Edmonds

Born December 1841 New Brunswick, Canada Died September 5, 1889 La Porte, Texas

Union soldier, nurse, and spy Disguised herself as a man to serve in the Union Army

Historians estimate that more than four hundred women disguised themselves as men in order to serve as either Union or Confederate soldiers during the Civil War. Of all these women, Emma Edmonds was the most remarkable. Adopting the name "Franklin Thompson," she joined the Union Army early in the war and served for two years without revealing her true identity. She started out as a battlefield nurse, then made eleven successful missions behind Confederate lines as a spy. Edmonds used a variety of disguises during her spy missions. For example, she posed as a black man, a middle-aged Irish woman, a black woman, and a white Southern businessman. Many years after the war ended, the U.S. government recognized her contributions and awarded her a veteran's pension.

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