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were forced to evacuate Fort Pillow. Now only Montgomery's eight cotton-clad steam rams protected Memphis.

At dawn on June 6, as the Federal fleet of five ironclads and four rams steamed into view, Montgomery's gunboats prepared to defend Memphis from the river. In a melee of ramming and close-quarter fighting, three Confederate boats were destroyed and four captured.

Confederate casualties numbered an estimated 100 dead and 70-100 captured. Only four Federal casualties were recorded. Memphis surrendered to Federal authority, leaving Vicksburg the next strategic target in the Union's Mississippi Valley Campaign.

f 1 April 8-29: Halleck assembles three " separate armies as one massive army group

1^2) April 22: Pope's army begins to arrive in preparation for offensive. Davis's division arrives to reinforce Halleck

0 April 29: Halleck's army group advances inland along a ten mile front

(jT) Hampered by spring storms and sickness, Halleck's Federals dig rifle pits and redoubts, and improve roads to bring up army and its supplies

(J) May 4: Sherman's division entrenches. Concerned about his exposed right flank, Halleck entrenches Thomas's army upon each stage of the advance

(jj) May 9: Beauregard attacks elements of Pope's army in Farmington, but disorganized assault enables Pope to extract his forces

(j^ May 28-29: Federals partially invest Corinth, and shell the town

(^gj May 29: Beauregard, unable to defeat Federal army, evacuates Corinth during the night and moves to Tupelo

May 30: Halleck takes possession of ^ Corinth

Author of a number of standard works on tactics, Maj. Gen. Henry Wager Halleck (right) was known by the nickname "Old Brains". Many who had heard of the general's reputation experienced "a distinct feeling of disappointment" when they met him in person.

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C^P) April28-May 17: After thestirTrndH,<>l' j, v NWOrleansjarraguis fleet cflirtinu« ~

northward, briefly occupying Natchez ^

The Union mortar flotilla was commanded by Farragut's adoptive brother, David D. Forter. For six days forts Jackson and St. Fhilip were bombarded by the 20 mortar schooners, each of which mounted one heavy 13-inch mortar and two or more long 32-pounders (above).

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The Lower Mississippi

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