Atlanta Campaign Final Phase august i September 21864

On August 10, hoping to take advantage of the virtual destruction of two Federal cavalry divisions at the end of July, Hood dispatched the bulk of Wheeler's cavalry across the Chattahoochee River into northern Georgia. Hood's aim was to force Sherman to retreat from Atlanta by wrecking his railroad supply line. Wheeler, however, failed to do any serious damage to the railroad, and soon had to flee into Tennessee, thereafter ceasing to be a factor in the campaign.

Meanwhile, Sherman again tried to turn Hood's left flank, west of Atlanta, only to be repulsed at Utoy Creek on August 6 and 7 Similarly, a bombardment of Atlanta achieved nothing but civilian casualties. A cavalry raid against the Macon & Western Railroad - Hood's sole remaining supply line - also failed. Sherman, therefore, once again resorted to a large-scale flanking maneuver.

Leaving XX Corps to guard the Chattahoochee railroad bridge, Sherman withdrew the rest of his army from the trenches around Atlanta and swung it south toward Jonesboro. Hood was unable to react until he ascertained Sherman's precise objective. Finally, on August 30, when he heard that a large Federal force was approaching Jonesboro, he sent the corps of Hardee and S.D. Lee to the town with orders to drive back the Federals. On August 31, Hardee assaulted Howard's Army of the Tennessee, but was easily repulsed. However, Hardee held against a Federal counterattack the following day, then withdrew during the night to Lovejoy's Station.

At Jonesboro Hardee's frontal assaults against Howard's Federal entrenchments resulted in ten times as many Confederate casualties as Union (see map, below right)

Immediately prior to their evacuation of Atlanta, Confederate troops ensured that their supplies and wagons did not fall into Union hands by destroying them. The explosion at first encouraged Sherman to believe that his advance parties had joined battle ( below).

" A s I became more and more

11 convinced of our inability to successfully resist an advance of the Federal Army, I concluded to resume active operations, move upon Sherman's communications, and avert, if possible, impending disaster from the Confederacy."

Hood outlining bis plans after the evacuation of Atlanta.

Confedi i^P) Aug 6: Union XXIII Corps repulsed by — Bates's division in an attempt to turn Confederate left near Utoy Creek

Aug 18-22: Kilpatrick's Unioiicavalry division raids the Macon ScWestem ' Railroad, but is repulsed at Lovejoy's; Station. Returns to Union lines ¡:

Aug 25-26: Under cover ofcUritncss, Sherman withdraws, leaving. XX Corps to > guard railroad crossing on the ■ Chattahoochee

(Vj Aug 28-29: Howard's Army of tht;, - Tennessee reaches Fairbufn, .and Tr.omas - ■ with IV and XIV Corps teaches Red Qajs.; both columns halt to :iis:rov At^miJi West Point Railroad---.

^ Aug 30: Howard, Thomas, and Scfrofield ^^^ approach Macon Railroad at por.:s ; between Rough & Ready and Jonesboro

^g Aug 30, night: Hood sends-'Hardee's and S.D. Lee's Corps to.drfte back Union columns

Aug 31: Hardee attacks Hotvatd at ^^^ Jonesboro and is easily repulsed (see ni'ap. below)

Ag- Aug 31: Cox's division of XXIII Corps —' cuts Macon Railroad-S0uth ofRonglr&" Ready; in evening XIV Corps reaches Railroad north of Jonesboro.

Immediately prior to their evacuation of Atlanta, Confederate troops ensured that their supplies and wagons did not fall into Union hands by destroying them. The explosion at first encouraged Sherman to believe that his advance parties had joined battle ( below).

Confedi

Hood outlining bis plans after the evacuation of Atlanta.

i^P) Aug 6: Union XXIII Corps repulsed by — Bates's division in an attempt to turn Confederate left near Utoy Creek

Aug 18-22: Kilpatrick's Unioiicavalry division raids the Macon ScWestem ' Railroad, but is repulsed at Lovejoy's; Station. Returns to Union lines ¡:

Aug 25-26: Under cover ofcUritncss, Sherman withdraws, leaving. XX Corps to > guard railroad crossing on the ■ Chattahoochee

(Vj Aug 28-29: Howard's Army of tht;, - Tennessee reaches Fairbufn, .and Tr.omas - ■ with IV and XIV Corps teaches Red Qajs.; both columns halt to :iis:rov At^miJi West Point Railroad---.

^ Aug 30: Howard, Thomas, and Scfrofield ^^^ approach Macon Railroad at por.:s ; between Rough & Ready and Jonesboro

^g Aug 30, night: Hood sends-'Hardee's and S.D. Lee's Corps to.drfte back Union columns

Aug 31: Hardee attacks Hotvatd at ^^^ Jonesboro and is easily repulsed (see ni'ap. below)

Ag- Aug 31: Cox's division of XXIII Corps —' cuts Macon Railroad-S0uth ofRonglr&" Ready; in evening XIV Corps reaches Railroad north of Jonesboro.

Confederate prisoners-of-war are marched back to the captured Atlanta (right} after their defeat at the \ Battle of Jonesboro.

The railroad-wrecking expeditions of Sherman's cavalry (above), led by Maj. Gen. H. J. Fitzpatrick were limited in their effectiveness as the rebel engineers proved themselves as capable as their Union counterparts at repairing damaged tracks.

"■X Tot one instant did that line

L > hesitate - it moved steadily forward to the enemy's works - over the works with a shout - over the cannon -over the rebels, and then commenced stern work with the bayonet, but the despairing cries of surrender soon stopped it, the firing ceased, and 1,000 rebels were... prisoners of war."

An lllinios major speaking of Jonesboro.

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