"\y7 e could and should have done

W more. We could and should have captured Butler's entire army."

Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard on the failure of the Confederate army, to drive Butler's army from the Bermuda Hundred after the battle of Drewry's Bluff.

The Hawlett House [Confederate]*-battery has fired occasionally at our Crow's Nest observation tower, but never seriously damaged it. Our big battery has replied now and then, and when standing behind our guns we could see the shot as they arched to the other side... The enemy tried to destroy our signal tower and we tried to destroy their guns, but nothing much resulted, except a big noise."

An artilleryman in the Army of the James.

\ defensive lines

Enforcements , meeting Richmond vard Richmond

.ice out of early h Union right nore'sUnion rred by both srns

Butler's headquarters on the James River (below). Though keeping up the pretence of ingenious activity, in failing to advance immediately upon Richmond3 Butler had lost his last opportunity to win any laurels during the Civil War, forward into loke's t of the day .d not receiving from the south ay into night

Constructed upon Butler's orders the "Crows Nest" observation platform looms over an incomplete Union mortar battery (above). The tower served no useful function and pinpointed the location of the batteries at its base, thereby assisting the Confederate gunners.

e night

Among other needless activities, Butler ordered that a number of pontoon bridges should be built across the Appomattox River (above). Frustrated by his subordinate's incompetency, Grant complained that the Army of the James might as well be "in a bottle strongly corked".

Sheridan's Raids may 9 -24 and june 7 -28 1864

As part of his efforts to energize the Army of the Potomac, in the spring of 1864 General Grant appointed General Philip Sheridan to command the army's cavalry. Small in stature and abrasive in personality, Sheridan aggressively sought a larger role for the Federal Cavalry. After repeated clashes between Sheridan and the army commander, General Meade, Grant authorized Sheridan to operate independently to defeat J.E.B. Stuart's Confederate cavalry

On May 9, Sheridan began the raid with 10,000 troops, while Stuart followed with only 4,500 men. Splitting his command, Sheridan held off Stuart's pursuit with some units while sending others to strike the Virginia Central Railroad at Beaver Dam Station. After damaging the Railroad, Sheridan's reunited force continued southward toward Richmond. Leaving subordinates to follow Sheridan's trail, Stuart led the bulk of his command on a forced march to get between the Federals and the Confederate capital. On May 11, Stuart confronted Sheridan at Yellow Tavern: the outnumbered Confederates were routed, and Stuart himself mortally wounded. Too weak to force his way into Richmond, Sheridan then skirted the city's defenses and reached Federal lines at Haxall's Landing on May 14. Unwilling to assist the Army of the James in its advance, Sheridan soon departed for the Army of the Potomac, reaching it on May 24. Except for the death of Stuart, the raid had accomplished little.

Two weeks later, Grant again sent Sheridan's cavalry to raid the Virginia Central Railroad. This time the raid's primary purpose was to distract Confederate attention from Grant's pending crossing of the James River. Departing with 6,000 horsemen on June 7, Sheridan looped northward around Richmond and four days later struck the railroad far to the west in the vicinity of Trevilian Station. Before the Federals could damage the track significantly, they were attacked by Major General Wade Hampton and 5,000 Confederate cavalrymen. In a confused action around the station that lasted for two days, the Federals inflicted nearly 1,000 casualties upon Hampton's command, but lost an equivalent number of their own. Unable to accomplish more destruction or force Hampton from the field, Sheridan then withdrew, eventually rejoining the Army of the Potomac at Petersburg on June 28.

.reen tED£R tCKSHAJiL


Ehland \Shtlion

Walkerton fí/7tw

King William C.

_May9: Aiming to cut. Lee's c'nrntminiciUimLMLh Richmond and ripétyLIL Stuart's cavalry. Gram ¿sptdtéSfjeridan snuth with 1 0,000 harsemeir SiiftnrmrçOlGjnen, ^Urates ipvERTÖl

While House

■O' May9: .ShendaTTs turcc.daniages Vírgiruít^--' Cíiiüal Rrultnad .11 leaver Dain StatW ' ' destroys Cqi tfederute-'slores, they-'"" continues south ;

TunUaW SlntiiyC

' 2 May 10-. Sheridan's torce íantps at Ground Squirrel Bridge 0» thf South Allna River

May 11: Stuart makes-astandar Yellow Tavern, only^G miles north of Richmond. But, outnumbered, the Confederate cavalry1 is routed and Stuart mortally' wounded

Malvern Hill diaries City CM.

May 14: Sheridan continues on to

Richmond, skirts the city's defenses and joins Federals at Haxall's Landing

May 24: After three days' rest at HaxalF Landing Sheridan journeys north to rejoin the Army of the Potomac near Spotsylvania

10 Miles eep moving, boys. We're going on 1\ through. There isn't cavalry enough in all the Southern Confederacy to stop us."

Gen. Philip Sheridan.

10 Miles


VWifir Huusr

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