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Rosccrms orders Hamilton's division to ambush Price's right flank, but attack confused and Hamilton retires into inner defenses

3-5pm: Davies and McKean's Federals ' ^ form fourth line of the day. Artillery duel briefly stalls Confederate advance, but Federals forced to retire into defenses. Fighting ends

®4am: Van Dora prepares a dawn attack To soften up the Federals, Confederate artillery opens fire. Federal batteries respond, silencing Confederate gu

10-1 lam: Maury 's Confortes begin' the..

^^ attack, Repeated attempts Biade.to storin Battery Robinett. Maury's.men slaughtered and repulsed

(^s 10-noon: Elements of Green's (Hebert's) division penetrate Corinth and fight to the railroad junction, but enfilading fire from Batteries Robinett and Williams, and Union counterattack, drive Confederates from town

I^Qj Afternoon: His army exhausted and cut to ribbons, Van Dorn retreats west toward Hatchie River. McPherson, leading reinforcements sent by Grant, pursues

Grant's First Vicksburg Campaign

Since the occupation of Corinth, Mississippi, in May, 1862, the Federal Army of the Tennessee had operated in West Tennessee and North Mississippi. Grant had concentrated 36,000 troops at Grand Junction, Tennessee, from where he proposed marching south to repair the Mississippi Central Railroad. The capture of Jackson would enable the Federals to approach Vicksburg from the east. The Confederate forces, now led by Lieutenant General John C. Pember-ton who had replaced Van Dorn, were based at Jackson.

Van Dorn remained in charge of the army camp at Holly Springs, but satisfied that the camp was untenable, he retired behind the Tallahatchie River and threw up earthworks covering the river crossings. Crossing the river would now be too risky, so Grant determined to outflank Van Dorn. On November 27, about 7,000 Federal troops landed near Friar's Point, and crossed the upper Delta.

Van Dorn was unaware of this threat until November 28, by which time the Federals were crossing the Tallahatchie. With the enemy across the river and threatening the railroads 50 miles to Van Dorn's rear, Pemberton ordered the army to retire behind the Yalobusha River. Torrential rain flooded the rivers, slowing the Federal pursuit as the Confederates withdrew southward to Grenada.

Grant's pursuing columns, now reinforced by Sherman, halted to rebuild the railroad and stockpile the depot at Holly Springs. Intending to employ naval power to flank the Confederates, Grant decided to deploy the divisions being assembled by Major General John A. McClernand for an amphibious assault on Vicksburg. Sherman embarked McClernand's troops and proceeded with them down the Mississippi to Helena, where he was joined by a fourth division. With this force, Sherman planned to ascend the Yazoo River, disembark, and seize the high ground northeast of Vicksburg. Before Grant was ready, the Confederates turned the tables on the Federals: Van Dorn, now reassigned to the cavalry, moved against Grant's supply depots.

Meanwhile, General Bragg at Murfrees-boro was confronted by the Army of the Cumberland. Bragg ordered Nathan Bedford Forrest to attack the Federal supply lines. Forrest duly crossed the Tennessee River at Clifton on December 15-17 and wrecked the railroad from Jackson to the Kentucky line, causing Grant to suspend his advance.

Unknown to Grant, Van Dorn with 3,500 horsemen, left the Grenada area on December 17, swinging east of the Federals. Early on December 20, Van Dorn swept into Holly Springs, surprised the Federals, and destroyed their main supply depot. To avoid pursuit, he headed northward and returned to Grenada.

The Holly Springs raid had far-reaching repercussions on Grant's plans; Van Dorn's raiders had destroyed his most important depot, Forrest had wrecked his vital railroad link, and the country had been exhausted by the armies. On December 21 Grant began to withdraw. Apprised that steamboats crowded with Federal troops were descending the Mississippi, Pemberton rushed reinforcements by rail from Grenada to Vicksburg.

The day after Christmas, three of Sherman's divisions landed at Johnson's plantation and marched toward Walnut Hills. But Sherman was too late: Confederate brigades had already reinforced the Vicksburg defenders.

On December 28, Major General Frederick Steele's Federal division landed near Thompson Lake, and thrust toward Blake's Levee, but his advance was checked by Confederate cannon. The following day -Steele having failed to turn the Confederate right - Sherman assaulted Pemberton's center, but his troops were slaughtered as they crossed the Chickasaw Bayou causeway, and Sherman suspended his attack. On January 2, 1863, he re-embarked his 30,000

The defender of Vicksburg, Gen. John C. Pemberton (above). Abrupt and domineering in manner, Pemberton was not widely liked, though he enjoyed the favor of Jefferson Davis.

december 1862

r^p) Nov 3-4: Grant's center wing moves south; two wings of his Army of the Tennessee rendezvous at Grand Junction fT^x Nov 8-10: Pemberton's field army, led by Van Dorn withdraws from Holly Springs and takes position covering the Tallahatchie crossings

/O Nov 26: Sherman, commanding Grant's right wing, marches, southeast from Memphis

Nov 27: Grant's center and left wings — advance south, occupy Holly Springs and approach the Tallahatchie crossings

5 \ Nov 27-Dec 7: Union troops land at Friar's Point, cross the Delta and wreck railroads near Granada

december 1862

men and left the Yazoo River. Paraphrasing Julius Caesar, he described his Chickasaw Bayou campaign: "I reached Vicksburg at the time appointed, landed, assaulted, and failed."

McClernand, now in command of Federal troops in the area, sailed up the Arkansas River and captured Arkansas Post and its 5,000 defenders on January 11.

r^p) Nov 3-4: Grant's center wing moves south; two wings of his Army of the Tennessee rendezvous at Grand Junction fT^x Nov 8-10: Pemberton's field army, led by Van Dorn withdraws from Holly Springs and takes position covering the Tallahatchie crossings

/O Nov 26: Sherman, commanding Grant's right wing, marches, southeast from Memphis

Nov 27: Grant's center and left wings — advance south, occupy Holly Springs and approach the Tallahatchie crossings

5 \ Nov 27-Dec 7: Union troops land at Friar's Point, cross the Delta and wreck railroads near Granada

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