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Caught completely by surprise when Jackson launched his attack on the Union Flank, Howard's XI Corps fled. Their retreat was covered by Couch's II Corps (above).

men routed the astonished Federals in their camps. In the gathering darkness, amid the brambles of the Wilderness, the Confederate line became confused and halted at 9 pm to regroup. Riding in front of the lines to re-connoiter, Stonewall Jackson was accidentally shot and seriously wounded by his own men. Later that night, his left arm was amputated just below the shoulder.

On May 3, Jackson's successor, General J.E.B. Stuart, initiated the bloodiest day of the battle when attempting to reunite his troops with Lee's. Despite an obstinate defense by the Federals, Hooker ordered them to withdraw north of the Chancellor House. The Confederates were converging on Chancellorsville to finish Hooker when a message came from Jubal Early that Federal troops had broken through at Fredericks burg. At Salem Church, Lee threw a cordon around these Federals, forcing them to retreat across the Rappahannock. Disappointed, Lee returned to Chancellorsville, only to find that Hooker had also retreated across the river.

Chancellorsville is considered Lee's great est victory, although the Confederate com mander's daring and skill met little resistence from the inept generalship of Joseph Hooker. Using cunning, and dividing their forces repeatedly, the massively outnum bered Confederates drove the Federal army from the battlefield. The cost had been frightful. The Confederates suffered 14,000 casualities, while inflicting 17,000. Perhaps the most damaging loss to the Confederacy was the death of Lee's "right arm," Stonewall Jackson, who died of pneumonia on May 10 while recuperating from his wounds.

Gettysburg Campaign: The Invasion of Pennsylvania june 1863

Following his victory at Chancellorsville in May, 1863, General Lee received approval from his government to invade the north. Lee hoped an invasion would fuel the northern peace movement and, at least, disrupt the Union war effort. After the death of Stonewall Jackson, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, 75,000-strong, had been reorganized into three army corps under Longstreet, Ewell, and A.P. Hill, with a cavalry division under J.E.B. Stuart. On June 3, advance troops of the Confederate army left their camps near Fredericksburg and marched west toward the Shenandoah Valley.

The 95,000-strong Federal Army of the Potomac, under General Hooker, was initially uncertain of Lee's intentions. On June 9, Hooker ordered cavalry general Alfred Pleasonton to conduct a reconnaissance with 11,000 men across the Rappahannock River toward Brandy Station. Pleasonton ran into Stuart's cavalry, and the largest cavalry battle of the war ensued. The result was a standoff, but the Federals were now alerted to the Confederate army's movements.

By June 13, elements of Ewell's corps appeared before Winchester. On the same day, Hooker with-drew the Army of the Potomac from the Rappahannock and ordered it north. On June 14-15, Ewell attacked the 9,000-strong Federal garrison at Winchester and

June 9: Federal cavalry under - Pleasonton surprises Stuart's force at Brandy Station and the biggest cavalry battle of the war ensues

2 June 13: Hooker withdraws his arrny y from Fredericksburg and retreats northwards

) J™ Maj-Gen. RobertMilfoys Federal force is completely routed by Ewell at Winchester

4 June 15: Confederates cross tht? Potomac River

June 25: Stuart leads his cavalry away from the main Confederate force; intending to unite with Lee at York g June 28: Hooker is relieved of command and Meade is nominated as his successor

(yj June 30: Cavalry skirmish at Hanover

( 3 June 30: Meade orders Reynolds to occupy Gettysburg

July 2: Stuart's cavalry finally rejoins Lee on the second day of the battle at

Gettysburg

Under the leadership of 'fighting Joe Hooker' the glorious Army of the Potomac is becoming more slow in its movements, more unwieldy, less confident of itself, more of a football to the enemy, and less an honor to the country than any army we have yet raised. "

The Chicago Tribune reflecting the general lack of confidence in the abilities of Gen. Hooker, after the Chancellorsville fiasco.

June 9: Federal cavalry under - Pleasonton surprises Stuart's force at Brandy Station and the biggest cavalry battle of the war ensues

2 June 13: Hooker withdraws his arrny y from Fredericksburg and retreats northwards

) J™ Maj-Gen. RobertMilfoys Federal force is completely routed by Ewell at Winchester

4 June 15: Confederates cross tht? Potomac River

June 25: Stuart leads his cavalry away from the main Confederate force; intending to unite with Lee at York g June 28: Hooker is relieved of command and Meade is nominated as his successor

(yj June 30: Cavalry skirmish at Hanover

( 3 June 30: Meade orders Reynolds to occupy Gettysburg

July 2: Stuart's cavalry finally rejoins Lee on the second day of the battle at

Gettysburg

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