Ironton

¡pringfield

June 17: Lyon's rate of 1,700 routs some 450 of the State Guard at Boonville.

Western Virginia june 3- September 13 i86i

Western Virginians had little in common with the rest of the state, and actively opposed secession. Steps were taken to organize a loyalist Virginia government in Wheeling, and to raise Virginia units to fight for the Union.

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad crossed western Virginia; to control it was a strategic imperative for the Union, and by late May, Federal troops had occupied Grafton, a key junction The Confederacy responded by sending soldiers into the region to recruit and threaten the railroad These forces clashed at Philippi on June 3 Federal columns made a night march and converged at Philippi. Suprised and routed in a skirmish known as the "Philippi Races," the Confederates fled southward.

Both North and South responded vigorously, sending in reinforcements. Con federate Brigadier General Robert B. Garnett divided his small army, taking the larger force to Laurel Hill to guard the road to Philippi. Lieutenant Colonel John Pegram, with 1,300, held Rich Mountain on the vital Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike. In early July, Major General George B. McClellan sent a force from Philippi to threaten Garnett at Laurel Hill. McClellan marched against Pegram at Rich Mountain. On July 11, Brigadier General William S. Rosecrans's column climbed Rich Mountain and overwhelmed the small Confederate force in the pass. With the Federals in his rear, Pegram was forced to abandon his position during the night.

Sergeant Oscar Ryder (left) of the 7th Regiment, Hew York State Militia.

The Federal victory at Rich Mountain rendered Garnett's Laurel Hill position untenable, and he evacuated on July 12. Garnett, believing McClellan was at Beverly, sought to extricate himself from the area by way of the Cheat River Valley. The pursuing Federals overtook Garnett at Carrick's Ford on the 13th; Garnett was killed and his small army escaped to Monterey. The Confederate government's response was prompt: on July 28, General Robert E. Lee left Richmond for western Virginia. Aiming to defeat Federal forces occupying the Tygart Valley and East Cheat Summit, Lee sent three columns down the valley one

Philippi Races

June 3 1861

1 May 30,1861: Union troops arrive by rail from Wheeling and occupy Grafton

St. Clairs-June 2: Two Federal columns march VILLE from Grafton to attack Confederates*' ' near Philippi.

Philippi Races

June 3 1861

Confederate detachment jffi^^at Grafton withdrew to Philippi, pursued with forced M^t marches by 3:00p Federals who tramped through ram and over wretched roads. Although the Federal ijjfjf^r attack miscarried, the Confederates fled southt&aiid in such haste that their fUght became known as "ThePhilippi Races."

Sept 9: Lee, now in command of '1 Confederate foces in Western Yrigttiik, sends three columns against federals holding Tygart Valley and Cheat"- -. Mountain, (see map top right)

Confederate detachment jffi^^at Grafton withdrew to Philippi, pursued with forced M^t marches by 3:00p Federals who tramped through ram and over wretched roads. Although the Federal ijjfjf^r attack miscarried, the Confederates fled southt&aiid in such haste that their fUght became known as "ThePhilippi Races."

(jj) July 11:Roseeranswith oueWij overwhelms Confederate forc^guar.din; Rich Mountain. Pegram abandons Camp Garnett.

July 12: Garnett.evacuates Laurejjjiil - £ defenses.

(jT) July 13: In rearguard actional Carriers Ford, Garnett is. killed. Norfl>offeerly,. Pegram surrenders^ McClellaii:

Sept 9: Lee, now in command of '1 Confederate foces in Western Yrigttiik, sends three columns against federals holding Tygart Valley and Cheat"- -. Mountain, (see map top right)

Sergeant Oscar Ryder (left) of the 7th Regiment, Hew York State Militia.

Washington

Cheat Mountain

September 10-13 1861

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