Km

20 miles

Confederate 'General Albert Sidney Johnston (left) had servi^mfibe fJ.S. Army during the Black.Hawk and Meicioan ¡Mats. Commissioned cr full general in [he Confederate Army ¡at the outbreak of war he enjoyed considerable popularity and his death at Shiloh was counted a national disaster.

Images Logan Crossroads

J™6 Union troops cross mountains and the Tennessee and bombard Chattanooga

(C^ June 6-11: Two Union brigades force their way through Big Creek and Rogers gaps and enter Powell River Valley

Jan 17: Marching via Columbia, Thomas reaches Logan's Cross Roads jan 19-20, dam In battle of Logan's Crossroads (MillSprings), Confederates attack Thomas's camps, but are defeated and flee across Cumberland River

April 11: Morgan, ordered to seize Cumberland Ford. To defend the Gap, Confederates rush two brigades to Chattanooga

June 4: Union troops advance from Fayetteville and rout Confederates at Sweeden's Cove

9^) Jan 20-26: Crittenden retreats to Gainesboro

June 17-18: Confederates evacuate Cumberland Gap; Morgan occupies it that a Union attack was imminent, Crittenden preempted the strike with an assault at Logan's Crossroads (right) during the early hours of January 19. Though initially successful, the Confederate attack wavered when Zollicoffer was killed in the confusion. Reinforced, Thomas's Federals were able to break the Confederate left. The Confederates hurriedly retreated across the Cumberland, abandoning their camp and supplies. Union casualties numbered 261, Confederate 533.

that a Union attack was imminent, Crittenden preempted the strike with an assault at Logan's Crossroads (right) during the early hours of January 19. Though initially successful, the Confederate attack wavered when Zollicoffer was killed in the confusion. Reinforced, Thomas's Federals were able to break the Confederate left. The Confederates hurriedly retreated across the Cumberland, abandoning their camp and supplies. Union casualties numbered 261, Confederate 533.

I i he country must now be roused to X make the greatest effort that it will be called upon to make during the war. No matter what the sacrifice may be, it must be made, and without loss of time... All the resources of the Confederacy are now needed for the defense of Tennessee."

Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston.

Though a firm disciplinarian and an tactician, Major Gen. Don Carlos Buell (right) was a slow and cautious soldier who repeatedly resisted Lincoln's calls for a Federal advance. Methodical and reserved, Buell was not a popular leader, but he did believe that popularity was an essential characteristic for military effeciency and success.

J™6 Union troops cross mountains and the Tennessee and bombard Chattanooga

(C^ June 6-11: Two Union brigades force their way through Big Creek and Rogers gaps and enter Powell River Valley

June 17-18: Confederates evacuate Cumberland Gap; Morgan occupies it

Jan 17: Marching via Columbia, Thomas reaches Logan's Cross Roads jan 19-20, dam In battle of Logan's Crossroads (MillSprings), Confederates attack Thomas's camps, but are defeated and flee across Cumberland River

9^) Jan 20-26: Crittenden retreats to Gainesboro

April 11: Morgan, ordered to seize Cumberland Ford. To defend the Gap, Confederates rush two brigades to Chattanooga

June 4: Union troops advance from Fayetteville and rout Confederates at Sweeden's Cove

On January 19, a second battle was fought in the region; a Confederate army led by Major General George B. Crittenden had established a fortified camp at Beech Grove on the Cumberland, opposite Mill Springs. On January 1st, Federal Brigadier General George H. Thomas marched his division through heavy rain from Lebanon reaching Logan's Cross Roads on the 17th.

With the Cumberland in flood, Critten den ordered a night march and a dawn attack on the Federal camps, hoping to beat Thomas's forces before they concen trated. The Confederates surprised the Federals, but faltered when popular Brig adier General Felix K. Zollicoffer was killed. This gained the Federals a respite, and Thomas brought up reinforcements. After a desperate fight, the Federals turned Crittenden's left flank and the Confed erates fled across the river. Middle Creek had prised the Confederates out of eastern Kentucky, and the battle of Mill Springs had breached Johnston's Kentucky line.

It was April 11 before the Union followed up their victory. Brigadier General George W. Morgan, leading his Seventh Division, was sent to capture Cumberland Gap and free East Tennessee. The Confederates had fortified the Wilderness Road route to the Gap. Favoring an indirect approach, Morgan ordered one brigade to advance via Big Creek Gap while other forces threatened Chattanooga. Confederates were rushed to Chattanooga, but realizing they were outflanked by the Federal column, they evacuated Cumberland Gap on June 17. The next day Morgan occupied the strategic gateway to East Tennessee.

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