J

While encouraging his men to hold their positons, Gen. John B. Hood was struck in the leg by a Union minie. ball. Already crippled by a wound from Gettysburg, this further injury necessitated the amputation of a leg.

Union Private A. van Lisle at Chickamauga.

w e see a flash, as of sheet lightning; we hear the report; we see our comrades falling, some never to rise again; some mortally wounded, weltering in blood, others crippled and writhing in agony... The battle is on in earnest.

Union Private A. van Lisle at Chickamauga.

the left under General Longstreet and the right under General Polk - Bragg ordered a coordinated attack with the right wing to commence at dawn. Delayed by poor staff work for four hours, the attack stalled after achieving momentary success. The movement of Federal reserves northward, however, opened a gap in Rosecrans's line that was exploited by the Confederate left wing. The Federal right collapsed, forcing Rosecrans and other senior commanders from the field. Undismayed, Thomas rallied the remaining Federals around Snodgrass Hill and Kelly Field, and held his ground until nightfall. Battered, but not decisively beaten, the Army of the Cumberland withdrew into Chattanooga. Bragg had inflicted 16,170 casualties on the Federal army and had held the field, but in turn he had paid a heavy price - 18,454 Confederate casualties - and despite all the determination and sacrifice of the Army of the Tennessee, Chatanooga still remained firmly in Federal hands.

While encouraging his men to hold their positons, Gen. John B. Hood was struck in the leg by a Union minie. ball. Already crippled by a wound from Gettysburg, this further injury necessitated the amputation of a leg.

Twelve-year-old drummer-boy Johnny Clem who was promoted to the rank of sergeant for felling a rebel colonel who was pursuing him on horseback (above).

¡FM'e'Battje-df'(right). One Union officer reported that$U'e dead lay in such masses that the ■ground beneath them was scarcely visible and that the Chickamauga ran red with blood.

¡FM'e'Battje-df'(right). One Union officer reported that$U'e dead lay in such masses that the ■ground beneath them was scarcely visible and that the Chickamauga ran red with blood.

Unpopular with both his officers and men, Gen. Braxton Bragg (above) was argumentative, irritable and extremely critical of his subordinates. His friendship with Jefferson Davis and the reputation which he gained during the Mexican War, ensured his commission as a brigadier general at the outbreak of hostilities. Despite his less attractive characteristics, Grant would later call him " remarkably intelligent and well-informed".

Owing his appointment to his political background rather than to proven military ability, the initial Northern confidence in the abilities of William Starke Rosecrans (above) rapidly began to decline. Though conscientious and well-intentioned, Rosecrans lacked .. the resolution and decisiveness essential in a„gerreral ' officer. His replacement by the capable GeoFge Thomas came as a relief to his subordinates^"

Chattanooga September 21 - November 251863

After Chickamauga, the Confederate Army of Tennessee followed the Federals to Chattanooga. Unable to hold Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge - which overlooked the city - General Rosecrans established his defenses on the valley floor. When the Confederates occupied the two mountain ridges, Rosecrans's only access to his supply base at Stevenson, Alabama, was a long, tortuous wagon road over Walden's Ridge. Within a month, the Army of the Cumberland was in danger of being starved out of Chattanooga. In haste, the Lincoln administration transferred troops from Mississippi and Virginia to reinforce the Army of the Cumberland. Given overall command in the Chattanooga area, General U.S. Grant replaced Rosecrans with General Thomas, and ordered General Sherman's and General Hooker's units to assist Thomas in breaking Bragg's siege of Chattanooga.

Long before Chickamauga, the Confederate Army of Tennessee had been noted for factional squabbling within its command structure. By October, virtually the only point of agreement among the army's senior commanders was their dislike for General Bragg. Even after Bragg forced the departure of Generals Polk and D.H. Hill, dissension continued to be fueled by General Longs-treet. Matters came to a head when Longstreet failed to prevent the Federals from opening a direct supply line to Chattanooga, at the battle of Wauhatchie on October 28 Rather than break openly with Longstreet, Bragg permitted him to take his corps north to besiege the Federal garrison at Knoxville, Tennessee.

Reduced in strength, Bragg's army lost Lookout Mountain to Hooker on November 24, and concentrated on Missionary Ridge for a final stand. The following day, Grant sent Sherman and Hooker to envelop the flanks of the new Confederate position. With their attacks stalled, Grant asked Thomas to mount a demonstration in the center of the Federal line. Anxious to eradicate the stain of Chickamauga, the Army of the Cumberland turned the demonstration into a smashing attack, which gained the crest of Missionary Ridge and shattered Bragg's army. Federal losses were only 5,815, while Confederate casualties were not much larger at 6,667. Chattanooga, however, was irretrievably lost to the Confederacy. After briefly pursuing Bragg's army into northern Georgia, the Federals returned to Chattanooga; both sides ceased operations for the winter.

Nov 23-24: Gram sends Sherman and Flooker to envelop the flanks of Confederate position

Unpopular with both his officers and men, Gen. Braxton Bragg (above) was argumentative, irritable and extremely critical of his subordinates. His friendship with Jefferson Davis and the reputation which he gained during the Mexican War, ensured his commission as a brigadier general at the outbreak of hostilities. Despite his less attractive characteristics, Grant would later call him " remarkably intelligent and well-informed".

Owing his appointment to his political background rather than to proven military ability, the initial Northern confidence in the abilities of William Starke Rosecrans (above) rapidly began to decline. Though conscientious and well-intentioned, Rosecrans lacked .. the resolution and decisiveness essential in a„gerreral ' officer. His replacement by the capable GeoFge Thomas came as a relief to his subordinates^"

(j ) Sept 21: Unable to hold lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge.

Rosecrans withdraws his forces to Chattanooga

Çzj Sept 25-Oct 24: To aid Rostcraii, Federal XI and XII Corps of Anny of the Potomac arc transferred 1:253 miles by rail from Culpeper to.Cluiltanooga

' 2 \ Sept 21: Bragg's Confederates occupy "~-y Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge

Having positioned Gen. Hooker at the foot of Lookout Mountain, Gen. Grant was able to succor the besieged Chattanooga with food and supplies sent by rail and steamboat from Bridgeport. Although the needs of __ Thomas's beleaguered army could not be met in full, the establishment of this tortuous supply route did prevent actual starvation and in itself constituted a masterpiece of military transportation (below).

rÄ Oct 26-27, night: On Smith and 3,300 ^ men sail down Tennessee Riverj march across Moccasin Fj^rrtto B Ferry', chase-off Conli^ai^Jickets and erect pontoon bridj

'Hi Whii^tciiie. Loiigstreet's troops attacmtlcral XI Corps. but fail to drr-e ¡In in from the newtapened Union supply route from Bridgeport, mck-n amed tile "Cracker-line"

Nov 23-24: Gram sends Sherman and Flooker to envelop the flanks of Confederate position

Ort 23: (.ratiL given overall command in tire west, arrives in Chattanooga

To Bridgeport Union Army tiriiüimä àr

Stevenson

Nvrih

Chickamauga Creek y!

Chickapszt orFtfar's Isl xxx

^ Nov 24: Bragg IdsöLiokouL Morn] t&u to Hooker's forces;'Hooker proceeds to Rossville to threaten Bragg's left ahd rear

SHERMAN /

fc^) Nov 25: Shermsfl'l troops attack v ^ Goafederate right at Tu nnel Hiil, but repulsed bv Gebuw's and Stevenson's-divisions i ckgroicnd initial Mam Starke c. Though ran s lacked y î ~ eTTrge Thomas

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment