Arkansas

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Most of the Civil War shipwrecks in Arkansas, other than those in the Mississippi River, are located in the Arkansas and White rivers. Wrecks on the Mississippi River are found in the Mississippi River section.

Major Arkansas naval battles occurred at DuVall's Bluff on the White River and Arkansas Post on the Arkansas River. No vessels were sunk in any engagements between warships, but several steamboats were captured and destroyed by Confederate shore batteries and guerrilla bands.

Most vessels lost in Arkansas were either destroyed to prevent capture or were snagged in accidents. To block the White River from advancing Union gunboats, the Confederates scuttled the Eliza G, CSS Mary Patterson, and CSS Maurepas at St. Charles on June 16, 1862.

When Union troops raided Van Buren on the Arkansas River on December 28-29, 1862, the Confederate steamers Arkansas, Era No. 6, Frederick Notrebe, Key West, and Rose Douglas were scuttled or burned. When the Confederates evacuated Little Rock and Union forces occupied the Arkansas capital on September 10, 1863, the Confederates scuttled or burned the steamers Arkansas, Chester Ashley, Little Rock, CSS Pontchartrain, CSS St. Francis No. 3, and Tahlequah on the Arkansas River.

Adams. Union. Steamer. Cargo of quartermaster's stores and ammunition. Ran into the steamer Chippewa 20 miles below Little Rock on the Arkansas River the night of April 12, 1864, and sank. Part of the cargo was salvaged by Union forces. (OR, 34:3:147.)

Ad. Hine (Ad. Hines) (Nugget). Union. Stern-wheel steam transport, 94 tons. Length 129 feet, beam 24 feet, depth 35 feet, 2 boilers. Built in 1860 at Monongahela City, Pa. Snagged while carrying a cargo from St. Louis on February 18, 1864, on the Arkansas River, 8 miles below Pine Bluff. Sank in 8 feet of water in five minutes. Was raised by the crew. Was later renamed Nugget. (ORN, 25:775-76, 781-82, 784-85; 26:10; MSV, 2; WPD, 5.)

Aid. U.S. side-wheel steamer, 60 tons. Built in 1860 at Evans-ville, Ind. Snagged and sank on January 28, 1861, in the St. Francis River. (MSV, 4, 239.)

Arkansas. Confederate. Side-wheel steamer, 115 tons. Cargo of freight. Built in 1832 at Cincinnati. Trapped by low water in the Arkansas River above Lee's Creek Bluff. Part of the vessel's cargo was unloaded. Was burned on Maj. Gen. Thomas C. Hindman's orders on December 28, 1862, to prevent capture by Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt's advancing Union forces. (OR, 22:1:167-68, 172; MSV, 13.)

Arkansas. Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer, 223 tons. Length 154 feet, beam 33 feet, depth 5 feet, 3 boilers. Built in 1860 at Pittsburgh, Pa. Was burned on the Arkansas River at Little Rock on September 10, 1863, as Gen. Frederick Steele's Union forces approached the capital city. (MSV, 13, 242; WPD, 29.)

Bracelet. Confederate. Cottonclad side-wheel steamer, 169 tons. Built in 1857 at Louisville. Was burned by Confederates at Little Rock on September 10, 1863, as Gen. Frederick

Steele's Union forces approached the city. Removed in 1906 by the snagboat C. B. Reese. (MSV, 246; WPD, 60.)

Cambridge. Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer, 242 tons. Built in 1856 at Brownsville, Pa. Snagged on February 23, 1862, at Grand Glaise on the White River, with forty-two lives lost. (MSV, 28, 248.)

Cedar Rapids. U.S. Stern-wheel steamer, 131 tons. Length 153 feet, beam 25 feet, 2 boilers. Built in 1858 at Freedom, Pa. Snagged on February 12, 1861, at Douglas Landing after salvaging the A. H. Sevier. (EAS, 274; WPD, 75.)

Celeste. Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 79 tons. Snagged at Du-Vall's Bluff in March or April 1865. (WPD, 248; WSTD, 76.)

Chester Ashley. Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer, 192 tons. Built in 1860 at Cincinnati. Was burned by Confederates on September 10, 1863, at Little Rock as Gen. Frederick Steele's Union army approached the city. (EAS, 275.)

Chippewa (New Chippewa). Union. Steamer. Carried a Union escort and Union refugees from Van Buren in the lead of a convoy of four Union steamboats. Grounded on the south side of the Arkansas River on January 17, 1865, at Ivey's Ford, about 14 miles above Clarksville. Confederate forces captured the vessel, two to four cannons, 1 officer, and 29 men of the 50th Ind. Regiment, as well as the vessel's captain, crew, the white refugees, and 40 African Americans. The vessel's upper works were destroyed, but the machinery and hull were in good condition after the attack. The vessel was set afire after the stores were removed by the Confederates. (OR, 48:1:12:14-17, 583, 613.)

Des Arc. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 276 tons. Length 205 feet, beam 31 feet, depth 6 feet, 3 boilers. Built in Paducah, Ky. Caught fire on March 22, 1862, probably in the White River at DuVall's Bluff. Was towed across the river and sunk by shelling from the USS Queen City to prevent the other nearby steamers from getting set afire. The Emma No. 2 arrived in Cincinnati on July 12, 1864, with machinery salvaged from the Des Arc. (WPD, 125.)

Des Moines City. Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 122 tons. Built in 1859 at Pittsburgh, Pa. Snagged on January 1, 1865, in the Arkansas River. (MSV, 53, 255; WPD, 125.)

Diurnal. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 199 tons. Built in 1850 at Brownsville, Pa. Snagged and burned on September 12,

1863, in the White River at St. Charles. (ORN, 25:417; MSV, 55, 256; WPD, 130.)

Doane (Doan No. 2). Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 250 tons. Cargo of forage and freight. Built in 1863 at Cincinnati. Grounded and broken in two, sinking in six feet of water in the Arkansas River at 2:00 p.m. on November 28,

1864, about 20 miles above Dardanelle and 18 miles east of Clarksville. The vessel's cargo was saved. Also see Doan No. 2 in Tennessee. (OR, 41:4:712-13, 754, 838, 935; MSV, 55.)

Doctor Buffington. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 262 tons. Length 176 feet, beam 32 feet, depth 5 feet. Built in 1857 at Cincinnati. Foundered in December 1862, in the White River. (MSV, 55, 256; WPD, 130.)

Eliza G. Confederate. Steamer. Was scuttled with the CSS Maurepas and CSS Mary Patterson by Confederates at St. Charles on June 16, 1862, in the White River to block a Union fleet coming upriver. Holes were bored in the vessel to sink it. (OR, 13:929-32; ORN, 23:166, 168, 200, 202, 205, 379, 693; CWC, 6-224.)

Ella. U.S. Stern-wheel steamer, 173 tons. Built in 1854 at Elizabeth, Pa. Snagged on December 13, 1865, at Little Rock on the Arkansas River. (MSV, 62, 258.)

Ellwood. U.S. Side-wheel ferry steamer, 21 tons. Built in 1864 at Portsmouth, Ohio. Was sunk in the St. Francis River in the fall, 1864, and raised. (WPD, 147.)

Era No. 6 (Era). Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer, 83 tons. Built in 1860 at Pittsburgh, Pa. Was burned after its cargo was removed under orders of Maj. Gen. Thomas C. Hind-man on December 27-28, 1862, on the Arkansas River above Van Buren, to prevent its capture by Union troops. (OR, 22:1:167-68, 172; MSV, 66.)

Frederick Notrebe (Notre). Confederate. Side-wheel steamer, 190 tons. Cargo of corn. Built in 1860 at Cincinnati. Grounded in the Arkansas River one mile below Van Buren. Was captured by Union raiders on December 28, 1862. Was shelled by Confederates and burned by Union forces on December 29, 1862. May have been raised and put into Union service. (OR, 22:167-68, 172; MSV, 77, 262.)

I Go. Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 104 tons. Built in 1860 at Antiquity, Ohio. Was burned on June 12, 1864, at Arkansas Post on the Arkansas River. (MSV, 99, 268.)

J. H. Done. Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 211 tons. Length 155 feet, beam 30 feet, depth 4 feet. Built in 1854 at Shouse-town, Pa. Lost at Scotia in 1864 in the upper Arkansas River. (WPD, 231.)

Julia Roane. Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer. Length 141 feet, beam 31 feet 1 inch (originally 21 feet 2 inches), depth 4 feet 10 inches. Built in 1859 at California, Pa. Was burned at Little Rock on September 10, 1863. (WPD, 261.)

Juliet (Goldena) (USS Juliet) (Number 4). U.S. Stern-wheel steamer, 157 tons. Length 155 feet 6 inches, beam 30 feet 2 inches, depth 5 feet. Built in 1862 at Brownsville, Pa. Former Union tinclad gunboat USS Juliet or Number 4, which was renamed Goldena after Union service. Stranded at the White River Cutoff between the Arkansas River and White River on December 31, 1865. (MSV, 118, 273; WCWN, 173.)

Key West. Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer, 169 tons. Built in 1857 at Elizabeth, Pa. Was burned on December 27, 1862, after being captured by Union forces at Van Buren on the south side of the Arkansas River opposite Strain's Landing. (OR, 22:1:167-68, 172; MSV, 121, 274; WPD, 271.)

Key West No. 4. Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 91 tons. Built in 1863 at Manchester, Pa. Sank 20 miles below Little Rock in the Arkansas River on April 1, 1864, at Paw Paw Landing due to a snag. (MSV, 271.)

Lady Jackson. Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 207 tons. Built in 1860 at Cincinnati. Snagged on October 14, 1863, in the White River. (MSV, 123, 275.)

Leon. Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 87 tons. Built in 1859 at Brownsville, Pa. Snagged in March 1864, at Burnum. Some cargo was removed by Union forces. (OR, 34:3:40; MSV, 126, 276.)

USS Linden (Tinclad 10). Union. Side-wheel steamer, 177 tons. Length 154 feet, beam 31 feet, depth 4 feet. Armed with six 24-pounder howitzers. Built in 1860 at Belle Ver-non (Pittsburgh), Pa. Was sunk by a snag in the Arkansas River on February 22, 1864, 15 miles above the mouth of the Arkansas River, below Arkansas Post. Reported to be within 400 yards of the snagged Ad. Hines. The port bow hit a stump which ripped a 90-foot hole from the bow to the port magazine. Reported to have taken an hour and a half to fill two-thirds full of water. The vessel's guns, paymaster's safe, casemate, shells, and stores were removed by Union forces. The machinery was raised and taken to the Union naval base at Mound City, Ill. (ORN, 25:774-83; ser. 2, 1:128; WCWN, 173.)

Little Rock. Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer, 183 tons. Built in 1858 at Cincinnati. Was burned by Confederates at Little Rock on the Arkansas River on September 10, 1863, as Gen. Frederick Steele's Union army approached the capital. (MSV, 129, 277.)

CSS Mary Patterson. Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer, 105 tons. Built in 1859 at Grand Glaize, Ark. Was scuttled when Confederate forces bored holes in the hull on June 16, 1862, at St. Charles with the CSS Maurepas and Eliza G on the White River to block a Union fleet of gunboats then ascending the river. (OR, 13:929-32; ORN, 23:166, 200, 205; CWC, 6-268.)

CSS Maurepas (Grosse Tete). Confederate. Side-wheel gunboat, 399 tons. Length 180 feet, beam 34 feet, draft 7 feet. Complement of seventy-nine, with five guns, 32-pounders and 24-pounders. Built in 1858 as the Grosse Tete at New Albany, Ind. Purchased by Confederates at New Orleans. Sunk along with the CSS Mary Patterson and Eliza G by Confederates to block the White River below St. Charles on June 16, 1862, after removal of the vessel's guns and supplies. The crew manned shore batteries on the river. Capt. Joseph Fry was wounded and captured during the battle. (OR, 13:929-32; ORN, 23:166, 168, 200-205; CWC, 6-268-69.)

Mill Boy. Union. Stern-wheel steamer, 86 tons. Cargo of stores, forage, and one cannon. Built in 1857 at Brownsville, Pa. as a barge. Converted to a steamer and a floating grist mill in 1860. En route to DuVall's Bluff. During a storm the rope to the vessel's anchor broke, and the vessel drifted into a snag and sank nine miles downstream, after turning upside down on January 31, 1864, on the White River, 9 miles above Jacksonport. Thirty-five tons of Union stores and forage, along with a caisson and gun carriage, were lost, but the cannon was recovered by Union forces. (OR, 34:2:241-42; MSV, 145, 281; WPD, 321-22; WSTD, 163.)

Miller (J. H. Miller). Union. Stern-wheel steamer transport, 68 tons. Cargo of commissary supplies and mail. Built in 1863 at Hazelton, Ind. Was captured and burned by Confederates on the Arkansas River, 20 miles from Pine Bluff on August 17, 1864. (MSV, 105, 270.)

CSS Pontchartrain (Eliza Simmons) (Lizzie Simmons).

Confederate. Side-wheel armored gunboat, 454 tons. Length 204 feet, beam 36 feet 6 inches, depth 6 feet 6 inches, draft 10 feet. Carried two 32-pounders and five other guns. Built in 1859 at New Albany, Ind. Two rifled 32-pounders were transferred to Confederate batteries at St. Charles on the White River. Was burned on September 9, 1863, at Little Rock on the Arkansas River by Gen. Sterling Price's command on the approach of Gen. Frederick Steele's Union army. The ammunition exploded on the ship. Part of the vessel's crew was later captured while fighting Union forces. The USS General Price destroyed the vessel on September 10, 1863. (ORN, ser. 2, 1:263; CWC, 6-288; WCWN, 245; WPD, 291.)

Progress. U.S. Side-wheel steamer, 59 tons. Built in 1862 at Zanesville, Ohio. Was sunk on December 1, 1865, in the Arkansas River with a loss of twenty lives. (MSV, 178, 291; WPD, 379.)

Quapaw. U.S. Stern-wheel steamer, 245 tons. Length 152 feet, beam 31 feet 11 inches, depth 5 feet 5 inches. Built in 1857 at California, Pa. Snagged in the Arkansas River on February 11, 1861, at Little Rock. (MSV, 179, 291; WPD, 380.)

USS Queen City (Number 26) (Queen City). Union. Side-wheel tinclad gunboat, 210 or 212 tons. Armor 1.25-inch iron. Complement of sixty-five, with two 30-pounder Parrotts, two 32-pounder smoothbores, four 24-pounder howitzers, and one 12-pounder gun. Built in 1863 at Cincinnati. Attacked by Confederate general Joe Shelby's brigade and four cannons at daylight on June 24, 1864, at Clarendon on the White River about 200 yards from shore. The first or second shot disabled the starboard engine and penetrated the steam pipe. After a twenty-minute fight the boat surrendered, with six killed and nine wounded. The captain's mate and twenty-five crewmen were captured. Ten thousand dollars in greenbacks had been aboard the ship, but most of the money had been removed by a Union paymaster a few days earlier. There is a legend of lost treasure on this wreck, based on the payroll of greenbacks that was removed before the gunboat was captured. Two 24-pounder howitzers were removed by the Confederates, along with fifty small arms, most of the vessel's ammunition, and other supplies. Was burned by the Confederates when the USS Tyler, USS Fawn, and USS Naumkegs approached. Several captured crewmen were later rescued by the Union ships. Two 24-pounder howitzers and one 32-pounder from the USS Queen City were later salvaged by the USS Tyler. The Exchange raised another gun. A total of seven cannons were salvaged, and two were left in the hull by August 9, 1864. Two 24-pounders captured by General Shelby's forces from the vessel were recaptured on June 26, 1864, by Union forces during a skirmish at Pikesville. In 1878 a Captain Kehoe salvaged much of the vessels machinery using a diving bell, diving suit, and mule-drawn barge and winch system. In 1977 the American Archaeology Division of the University of MissouriColumbia did a magnetometer survey, and divers found the remains of the hull and iron fittings. This vessel has been located and surveyed by National Park Service archaeologists. (OR, 34:1:1044, 1049-51; 34:4:535, 571, 579; 53 [supp.]: 479; ORN, 26:418, 423-25, 428-29, 432, 502; WCWN, 168; Garrison, May, and Marquardt, "Search for the U.S.S. Queen City: Instrument Survey, 1977," Arnold, Ninth Conference on Underwater Archaeology, 45-49.)

Rodolph. U.S. Stern-wheel steamer, 249 tons. Built in 1864 at Cincinnati. Snagged in December 1865, on the Arkansas River, 15 miles below Little Rock. (MSV, 187, 294.)

Rose Douglas. Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer, 123 tons. Cargo of 4,300 bushels of corn, 6 hogsheads of sugar, and a large amount of molasses. Built in 1860 at Belle Vernon (Pittsburgh), Pa. Was captured on December 28, 1862, on the Arkansas River at Van Buren by Maj. Gen. James G. Blunt's Union forces. Was shelled by the Confederates and burned on December 29, 1862, by Union soldiers, with all the cargo but the corn removed. (OR, 22:1:167-68, 171-71; MSV, 188, 294.)

St. Francis No. 3. Confederate. Stern-wheel cottonclad steamer, 219 tons. Length 160 feet, beam 29 feet, draft 6 feet. Built in 1853 at Jeffersonville, Ind. Was burned on the Arkansas River on September 10, 1863, at Little Rock as Gen. Frederick Steele's Union army approached. (CWC, 6-296; WCWN, 248; EAS, 289.)

Tahlequah. Confederate. Side-wheel steamer, 92 tons. Built in 1860 at Brownsville, Pa. Was burned by Confeder ates on September 10, 1863, at Little Rock on the Arkansas River upon the approach of General Steele's Union army. (MSV, 208, 300.)

Violet. Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer, 89 tons. Built in 1856 at Brownsville, Pa. Was burned on the Arkansas River at Van Buren on December 27, 1862. (MSV, 222, 304.)

William Henry. Confederate. Stern-wheel steamer, 95 tons. Built in 1857 at Paducah, Ky. Snagged on June 2, 1861, on the Arkansas River at Fort Smith. (MSV, 231, 307.)

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