Atlantic Ocean

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During the Civil War the Confederate commerce raiders CSS Alabama, CSS Florida, CSS Georgia, CSS Savannah, and CSS Tallahassee (later renamed CSS Olustee) and the tenders CSS Clarence, CSS Archer, and CSS Tacony caused major damage to Union shipping along the Eastern Seaboard as well as off South America. Shipping lanes between Europe and North America were particularly hard hit, and insurance rates skyrocketed. The Confederate commerce raiders were very effective. Many American vessels were redocumented as foreign vessels to avoid destruction if stopped by Confederate raiders.

Ada. Union. Fishing schooner, 69 tons. Was captured and burned by Lt. Charles W. Read and the CSS Tacony on June 23, 1863, off New England. (ORN, 2:332, 656.)

A. J. Bird. Union. Schooner, 182 tons. Was captured and burned by the CSS Olustee on November 3, 1864, off the Delaware capes. (OR, ser. 4, 3:1058; ORN, 3:836; Scharf, History of the Confederate Navy, 814.)

Aldebaran. Union. Schooner. Cargo of flour, provisions, clocks, and desks. En route from New York City to Maraham, Brazil. Was captured near latitude 29° 18' north, longitude 51° 4' west by the CSS Florida on March 13, 1863, and destroyed. (ORN, 2:648, 671, 677.)

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Amazonian. Union. Bark, 480 tons. Cargo of twenty cases of varnish, flasks of oil, and mail. Out of Boston. En route from New York City to Montevideo, Uruguay. Was captured and burned by the CSS Alabama on June 2, 1863, at latitude 15° 1' 18" north, longitude 34° 56' 30" west. (ORN, 2, 690:747-48; Semmes, Service Afloat, 624; Summersell, Boarding Officer, 118.)

Anna F. Schmidt. Union. Ship, 784 tons. Cargo of lamps, chinaware, glass, crockery, clothes, medicine, clocks, and sewing machines. Built in 1854 in Kennebunk, Maine. Out of Maine. En route from Boston to San Francisco. Was captured and burned at latitude 25° 27' south, longitude 37° 56' west by the CSS Alabama on July 2, 1863, in the South Atlantic. (ORN, 2:690, 754; 3:680; Semmes, Service Afloat, 631; Summersell, Boarding Officer, 124-25.)

Arcade. Union. Schooner. Cargo of staves to exchange for rum and sugar. En route from Portland, Maine, for Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadalupe. Was captured and burned by the CSS Sumter on November 26, 1861, at latitude 20° 27' north, longitude 57° 15' west. (ORN, 1:646, 726, 744; Semmes, Service Afloat, 270.)

Atlantic. U.S. Screw steamer, 1,054 tons. Built in 1864 at Mystic, Conn. Foundered at sea at latitude 36° 3' north, longitude 72° 30' west on October 15, 1865, with forty-eight lives lost. (MSV, 15, 243.)

Bold Hunter. Union. Ship. Cargo of 1,025 tons of coal. Out of Boston. En route from Dundee, Scotland, to Calcutta, India. Was captured on October 9, 1863, and burned by the CSS Georgia on October 10, 1863, near latitude 19° north, longitude 21° west, off French West Africa. (ORN, 2:808-9, 817.)

Byzantium. Union. Clipper ship. Cargo of coal. Bound for New York City from London. Was captured and burned by the newly captured CSS Tacony under Confederate lieutenant Charles W. Read on June 21, 1863, near latitude 41° north, longitude 69° 10' west, southeast of Canada and east of New England. (ORN, 2:656.)

Clarence (CSS Clarence) (Coquette). Union. Brigantine, 253 tons. Length 114 feet, beam 24 feet, draft 11 feet. Complement of twenty-one, with one 12-pounder howitzer. Cargo of cotton. Built in 1857 at Baltimore. En route from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for Baltimore. Was captured on May 6, 1863, by the Towry, which was manned by CSS Florida crewmen. Lt. Charles W. Read and a Confederate crew then sailed the CSS Clarence to Chesapeake Bay but were grounded. They captured three vessels on June 12, 1863, and transferred the crew and gun aboard the Tacony. They burned the Clarence on the morning of June 25, 1863. (ORN, 2:654-56; ser. 2, 1:250; CWC, 6-212.)

USS CommodoreMcDonough. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 532 tons. Length 8 feet 6 inches, speed 8 knots. Carried one 100-pounder rifled gun, one 9-inch Dahlgren smoothbore, two 50-pounder Dahlgrens, and two 24-pounder howitzers. Built in 1862 at New York City. Foundered on August 23, 1865, in the Atlantic Ocean while being towed from New York City to Port Royal, S.C. (ORN, ser. 2, 1:62; WCWN, 100.)

Commonwealth. Union. Ship, 1,300 tons. Cargo worth $60,000. From New York City. En route to San Francisco. Was captured and burned in the Atlantic Ocean by the CSS Florida on April 17, 1863. (ORN, 2:649, 672, 679.)

Constitution. Union. Bark. Cargo of coal. From Philadelphia. En route to Shanghai, China. Forty-eight days out of port, the CSS Georgia captured the vessel on June 25, 1863. It took two weeks for the crew of the CSS Georgia to transfer the badly needed coal by using buckets. The Constitution was then used for gunnery practice, set afire, and sunk on July 8, 1863. (ORN, 2:408, 814-15; Shomette, Shipwrecks of the Civil War, 181-82; Hearn, Gray Raiders, 242-43.)

Crenshaw. Union. Schooner, 279 tons. Cargo of grain. From New York City. En route to Glasgow. Was captured and burned by the CSS Alabama on October 26, 1862, at latitude 40° 11' 28" north, longitude 64° 32' 15" west, north of Bermuda. (ORN, 1:527, 780, 799-800; Semmes, Service Afloat, 489-91; Summersell, Boarding Officer, 42.)

Crown Point. Union. Ship, 1,098 tons. From New York City. En route to San Francisco. Carried assorted cargo. Was captured and burned in the Atlantic Ocean by the CSS Florida on May 13, 1863. (ORN, 2:652, 263-64, 680.)

Daniel Trowbridge (Trowbridge). Union. Packet schooner. Cargo of provisions, including lobster, beef, pork, hams, bread, crackers, cheese, flour, milk, fruit, and preserved meats. Out of New Haven, Conn. En route to Demerara, British Guiana. Was captured on October 27, 1861, and burned on October 30, 1861, by the CSS Sumter near latitude 16° 40' north, longitude 58° 16' west (another source—17° 54' north, 56° 3' west), northeast of Dominica. The fresh provisions were welcomed by the crew of the CSS Sumter, which had been subsisting on bad food. (ORN, 1:209, 216, 239, 637, 716-17, 744; Semmes, Service Afloat, 226-27; Hearn, Gray Raiders, 129.)

D. Godfrey. Union. Bark, 299 tons. Cargo of mess beef and pork. Out of Boston. Was captured and sunk by the CSS Shenandoah on November 8, 1864, southwest of the Cape Verde Islands at latitude 4° 42' north, longitude 28° 24' west, after the removal of 220 barrels each of mess beef and pork. (ORN, 3:760, 786, 802; Horan, CSS Shenandoah, 196; WCWN, 214; Shomette, Civil War Shipwrecks, 184; Hearn, Gray Raiders, 265.)

D. H. Mount. U.S. Screw steamer, 321 tons. Built in 1863 at Bound Brook, N.J. Foundered on October 23, 1865, between Cape Hatteras, N.C., and Jacksonville, Fla., with twenty-four lives lost. (MSV, 49, 254.)

Dictator. Union. Ship. Cargo of coal. From New York City. En route to Hong Kong. Was captured by the CSS Georgia on April 25, 1864, at latitude 25° 45' north, longitude 23° 15' 30" west. Was burned the next day. (ORN, 2:355, 811.)

Ebenezer Dodge. Union. Whaling bark. Out of New Bedford, Mass. En route to the Pacific Ocean. Crew of twenty-two. Leaking badly when captured, at latitude 30° 57' north and longitude 51° 49' west, by the CSS Sumter on December 8, 1861, and was burned off the Canary Islands. The vessel's provisions, water, clothing, twelve whale boats, and other small stores were removed to the Confederate raider. (ORN, 1:646, 728, 744; Semmes, Service Afloat,

Edward. Union. Whaling bark. Was captured and burned on December 4, 1864, by the CSS Shenandoah off Tristan de Cunha. (ORN, 3:760, 787, 804.)

E. F. Lewis. Union. Schooner, 119 tons. Was captured and destroyed by the CSS Olustee on November 3, 1864, off the Delaware capes. (OR, ser. 4, 3:1058; ORN, 3:836; Scharf, History of the Confederate Navy, 814.)

Elizabeth Ann. Union. Fishing schooner, 92 tons. Was captured and burned on June 22, 1863, by the CSS Tacony off New England. (ORN, 2:332, 656.)

Empress Theresa. Union. Bark, 312 tons. Was captured and burned by the CSS Olustee on November 1, 1864, off the Delaware capes. (OR, ser. 4, 3:1058; ORN, 3:836; Scharf, History of the Confederate Navy, 814.)

Flora. British. Side-wheel steamer, 571 gross tons, 359 registered tons. Length 215 feet, beam 25 feet 8 inches, depth 13 feet 6 inches. En route from Halifax, Nova Scotia for Bermuda to be repaired. Built in 1858 at Greenock, Scotland. Foundered at sea on January 11, 1864. (LLC, 300.)

George Latimer. Union. Schooner, 198 tons. Cargo of flour, lard, bread, and kerosene. From Baltimore. En route to Pernambuco (Recife), Brazil. Was captured and burned by the CSS Florida on May 18, 1864, at latitude 33° 55' north, longitude 55° 13' west. (ORN, 3:618, 644.)

Golden Eagle. Union. Ship, 1,121 tons. Cargo of guano. Out of San Francisco. En route from Howland Island to Cork,

Ireland. Was captured and burned by the CSS Alabama on February 21, 1863, near latitude 29° 28' north, longitude 44° 58' west. (ORN, 2:728-29; Semmes, Service Afloat, 579; Summersell, Boarding Officer, 88.)

Goodspeed. Union. Bark. From Londonderry, Ireland, to New York City in ballast. Was captured by the CSS Tacony and burned off New England on June 21, 1863. (ORN, 2:656.)

Hattie. British. Iron side-wheel steamer, 284 gross tons, 203 registered tons. Length 219.4 feet, beam 20 feet 2 inches, depth 8 feet 5 inches. Built in 1864 at Greenock, Scotland. Lost at sea on May 8, 1865. (LLC, 303.)

Henrietta. Union. Bark. Cargo of 3,100 whole bundles and 300 half-bundles of flour, 600 kegs of lard, and 75 boxes of candles. En route from New York City to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Was captured and burned by the CSS Florida on April 23, 1863. (ORN, 2:204, 649, 672-73.)

Hoboken. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 530 tons. Built in 1861 at Hoboken, N.J. Was lost on January 1 or 2, 1862, or in February 1862, during the Burnside Expedition to the North Carolina sounds. (MSV, 96, 267.)

Jacob Bell. Union. Clipper ship, 1,300 tons. Cargo of 1,380 tons of tea, matting, camphor, chow chow, and 10,000 boxes of firecrackers. Carried forty-one people on board, including two women. En route from Foochow (Fuzhou), China, for New York City. Was captured and burned by the CSS Florida on February 13, 1863, at latitude 25° 3' north, longitude 67° west, southwest of Bermuda. (ORN,

USS Jacob Bell. Union. Side-wheel steamer, 229 tons. Length 141 feet 3 inches, beam 21 feet, depth 8 feet 1 inch. Complement of forty-nine, with one 8-inch smoothbore, one 32-pounder smoothbore, one 50-pounder rifled gun, and two 12-pounder smoothbores. Built in 1842 at New York City. Decommissioned on May 13, 1865. Foundered at sea en route to New York City while under tow by the USS Banshee on November 6, 1865. (ORN, 2:1:111; WCWN, 85; DANFS, 3:483.)

John A. Parks. Union. Ship, 1,047 tons. Cargo of white pine lumber. Out of Hallowell, Maine. En route for Montevideo, Uruguay, and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Was cap tured, stripped of the cargo, and burned by CSS Alabama on March 2, 1863, near latitude 29° 15' north, longitude 38° 20' west. (ORN, 2:685, 730-32; Semmes, Service Afloat, 284; Summersell, Boarding Officer, 93.)

Joseph Park. Union. Brig, 244 tons. Out of Boston. In ballast. Crew of seven. Built in Maine. Six days out of Pernambuco (Recife), Brazil. Was captured by the CSS Sumter on September 28, 1861. Its provisions, sails, and cordage were removed. Was burned on September 29, 1861, after being used for target practice. (ORN, 1:209, 627, 636-37, 711, 744; Semmes, Service Afloat, 220; Hearn, Gray Raiders, 28-29.)

Kingfisher. Union. Whaling schooner, 120 tons. Out of Fairhaven, Mass. Length 78 feet 11 inches, beam 21 feet 2 inches, depth 8 feet 1 inch. Manned by twenty-three crewmen, all Portuguese but three or four. Was captured and burned by the CSS Alabama on March 23, 1863, after removing nine barrels of beef and pork, and some flour, at latitude 1° 26' south, longitude 26° 30' west, between Africa and Brazil. (ORN, 2:203, 685, 734; Semmes, Service Afloat, 588; Summersell, Boarding Officer, 97-98.)

L. A. Micabar (Macomber) (Micawber). Union. Fishing schooner. Was captured and burned by the CSS Tacony on June 20, 1863, off New England at latitude 40° 50' north, longitude 69° 20' west. (ORN, 2:656.)

Lizzie M. Stacey. Union. Schooner. Cargo of pine salt and iron. Was captured and burned by the CSS Shenandoah on November 13, 1864, near the Equator. (ORN, 3:404, 760, 787, 804.)

Mandamis. Union. Bark. Out of Baltimore. Crew of two officers and twelve sailors. Sailing in ballast. Was captured and burned by the CSS Florida on September 26, 1864, in the South Atlantic. (Scharf, History of the Confederate Navy, 816; Hearn, Gray Raiders, 128, 312.)

Marengo. Union. Fishing schooner, 83 or 84 tons. Was captured and burned by the CSS Tacony off the New England coast on June 22, 1863. (ORN, 2:332, 656; Scharf, History of the Confederate Navy, 817.)

Margaret Y. Davis. Union. Schooner, 170 tons. Carried an assorted cargo. Out of New York City. En route from Port

Royal, S.C., with seven aboard. Was captured and burned by the CSS Florida on July 9, 1864. (ORN, 3:623, 645.)

Mark L. Potter. Union. Bark, 389 tons. Crew of thirteen. Cargo of lime bricks and lumber. Out of Bangor, Maine. En route for Key West, Fla. Was captured and burned by the CSS Chickamauga on October 30, 1864, one day north of Wilmington, N.C. (OR, ser. 4, 3:1058; ORN, 3:318, 712.)

Mary Alvina. Union. Brig. Cargo of commissary stores. Out of Boston. En route to New Orleans. Was captured and destroyed by the CSS Clarence on June 9, 1863, at latitude 33° 52' north, longitude 74° 6' west. (ORN, 2:332, 655.)

M. J. Colcord. Union. Bark. Cargo of provisions. En route from New York City for Cape Town, South Africa. Was captured on March 30, 1863, by the CSS Florida and was burned on April 1, 1863. (ORN, 2:648, 671.)

Nare. Union. Steamer. Out of New York City. En route to Santa Marta, Venezuela. Sprung a leak and sank in one hour on July 15, 1864. One boat with the captain, the mate, and seven crewmen was rescued by the bark Sicilian on July 16. Another boat of crewmen was missing. (New York Times, July 25, 1864.)

Nina. Confederate. Side-wheel steamer blockade-runner, 338 bulk tons, 205 registered tons. Length 145 feet, beam 26 feet, depth 9 feet 6 inches. Built in 1848 at Washington, N.J. Foundered in late January 1863 between Nassau, Bahamas, and Charleston, S.C. (LLC, 314.)

North America. Union. Chartered by the War Department. Screw steamer, 1,651 tons. En route from New Orleans for New York City. Carried 225 sick and wounded soldiers. Built in 1864 at Philadelphia. Foundered at latitude 31° 10' north, longitude 78° 40' west, on December 22 or 24, 1864, with the loss of 197 people. (OR, ser. 3, 5:288; Spence, List, 665; MSV, 159, 285; Carnahan, 4000 Civil War Battles, 99.)

Olive Jane. Union. Bark, 360 tons. Cargo of French wine, brandies, canned meats, fruits, and other delicacies. En route from Bordeaux, France, to New York City. Was captured and burned at latitude 29° 28' north, longitude 44° 58' west, by the CSS Alabama on February 21, 1863. (ORN, 2:685, 728-29; Semmes, Service Afloat, 578-79; Summer-sell, Boarding Officer, 86-87.)

Oneida. Union. Merchantman. Cargo of $1 million worth of tea. En route from Shanghai, China, for New York City. Was captured and burned by the CSS Alabama on April 24, 1863. (ORN, 2:205, 649.)

Palmetto. Union. Schooner, 172 tons. Length 90 feet, beam 24 feet 4 inches, depth 8 feet 1 inch. Cargo of mixed goods. En route from New York City to San Juan, Puerto Rico. Built in 1860 at Trenton, Maine. Was captured and burned on February 3, 1863, after provisions were removed to the CSS Alabama at latitude 27° 18' 27" north, longitude 66° 10' west. (ORN, 2:685, 726.)

Primero. Union. Screw steamer, 331 tons. Built in 1861 at Brooklyn, N.Y. Was lost on February 18, 1862, between Port Royal, S.C., and New York City. (MSV, 178, 291.)

Red Gauntlet. Union. Clipper ship. Cargo of ice, coal, musical instruments, and other goods. Out of Boston. En route to Hong Kong. Was captured and sunk by the CSS Florida on June 14, 1863, after the coal was removed. (ORN, 2:653; Owsley, C.S.S. Florida, 70, 72.)

Ripple. Union. Fishing schooner, 64 tons. Was captured and burned by the CSS Tacony on June 22, 1863, off New England.(ORN, 2:332, 656.)

Robert Gilfillan. Union. Schooner. Cargo of provisions. En route from Philadelphia to Haiti. Was captured and burned by the CSS Nashville on February 26, 1862. (ORN, 1:747-48.)

Rockingham. Union. Ship, 979 tons. Cargo of guano from the Chincha Islands. Built in 1858 at Portsmouth, N.H. En route from Callao, Peru, to Cork, Ireland. Was captured on April 22, 1864, by the CSS Alabama, which had not captured any other vessel for three months. Used for target practice and then burned near latitude 15° 53' south, longitude 31° 44' west. (ORN, 3:53, 55, 681, 671; Semmes, Service Afloat, 748-49; Summersell, Boarding Officer, 183.)

Rufus Choate. Union. Fishing schooner, 90 tons. Was captured and burned by the CSS Tacony off New England on June 22, 1863. (ORN, 2:332, 656.)

Shooting Star. Union. Ship, 947 tons. Cargo of 1,500 tons of coal. En route from New York City to Havana, Cuba, or

Panama. Was captured and burned on October 31, 1864, by the CSS Chickamauga off the northeast coast at latitude 39° 20' north, longitude 70° west. (ORN, 3:318, 712.)

Star of Peace. Union. Ship, 840 tons. Cargo of hides and saltpeter for the Union army. Out of Boston. En route from Calcutta, India, to Boston. Was captured and burned by the CSS Florida on March 6, 1863. (ORN, 2:648, 671, 676.)

Susan. Union. Brig. Cargo of coal. Was captured and scuttled by the CSS Shenandoah southwest of the Cape Verde Islands on November 10, 1864. (ORN, 3:407, 760, 786, 802.)

Talisman. British. Iron side-wheel steamer, 266 gross tons, 173 registered tons, 359 bulk tons. Length 201 feet 4 inches, beam 24 feet, depth 9 feet 6 inches. Built in 1864 in Greenock, Scotland. Hit the wreck of the CSS Raleigh while leaving New Inlet, N.C. on December 18, 1864, and forced to return to Wilmington for repairs. Escaped from Wilmington but sank in a storm on December 29, 1864.

Thomas B. Wales. Union. East India Trader, 599 tons. Cargo of jute, linseed, and 1,700 bags of saltpeter. From Boston. En route to Boston from Calcutta, India. Was captured and burned near latitude 29° 15' north, longitude 57° 57' west by the CSS Alabama on November 7, 1862. Its passengers included the captain's wife as well as an American former consul, his wife, and his three daughters. The vessel's spars and rigging were removed. (ORN, 1:551, 780, 803, 807; 3, 678; Semmes, Service Afloat, 494-96; Summersell, Boarding Officer, 48-49.)

Vigilant. Union. Ship. In ballast. Crew included 10 African Americans. Armed with a rifled 9-pounder. Out of Bath, Maine. Sailing from New York City to the guano island of Sombrero, West Indies. Was captured and burned by the CSS Sumter at latitude 29° 10' north, longitude 57° 22' west, on December 3, 1861. The 9-pounder with ammunition and a chronometer were removed. (ORN, 1:646,

Wanderer. Union. Fishing schooner, 94 tons. Was captured and burned by the CSS Tacony under Lt. Charles W. Read on June 23, 1863, off New England. (ORN, 2:332, 656.)

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