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One of the first Confederate ports blockaded by the Union navy was at Savannah. A number of vessels were sunk as obstructions in the Savannah River by both Union and Confederate forces. The CSS Nashville was blown up and burned in the Ogeechee River in February 1863 and had extensive salvage operations in the 1970s and 1980s. Several blockade-runners were destroyed or wrecked along the Georgia coast or in its sounds and inlets.

When Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's Union army was about to capture Savannah by land, the Confederate Savannah fleet was scuttled and burned to avoid being captured. Among the vessels destroyed were the CSS Firefly, CSS Georgia, CSS Milledgeville, CSS Savannah, CSS Isondiga, CSS Water Witch, and an unfinished ironclad on the stocks. Several of these wrecks have been uncovered in the Savannah River during dredging.

A. B. Thompson. Union. Ship, 980 tons. Draft 19 feet. Built in 1853 at Brunswick, Maine. Was captured by the Confederate privateer Lady Davis. Was sunk to act as an obstruction in the Savannah River in late 1861 or early 1862. (ORN, 6:182; Spence, List, 626-28.)

Annie (Dolphin) (Emma Veleria). U.S. Iron side-wheel steamer, 357 tons, 129 bulk tons. Length 162 feet or 170 feet 2 inches, beam 21 feet or 21 feet 2 inches, depth 11 feet or 10 feet 6 inches. Built in 1844 in Glasgow, Scotland. Was captured on March 25, 1863, as the British blockade-runner Dolphin in the Caribbean by the USS Wachusett. Ran ashore on the south side of Fig Island in the Savannah River on October 22, 1865, after hitting a snag. The Coast Wrecking Co. of New York raised the vessel after two hours of pumping. (Spence, List, 678; MSV, 11; LLC, 296.)

Antoinette. British. Schooner. Out of Nassau, Bahamas. Carried a captain and crew of five. En route for Fernandia, Fla. Was run aground on Cumberland Island by the USS Braziliera on December 8, 1863. Union ships salvaged the vessel's anchors, chains, sails, and such. (ORN, 15:173-74.)

Arletta. British. Schooner of 35-50 tons. Crew of five. Cargo of coffee, whiskey, and alcohol. Out of Nassau, Bahamas.

Was run ashore by the USS South Carolina on the south end of Tybee Island the night of March 3-4, 1864. The crew and the boat were captured by a detachment of the 3rd R.I. Artillery Regiment, which was stationed on the island. The coffee was damaged, and the cargo was removed. (ORN, 15:354-56.)

Buffalo. Union. Prize sloop. Was captured by the USS Braziliera on February 1, 1864. Ran high onto a beach on Ossabaw Island on March 22, 1864, during a storm. (ORN,

CSS Chattahoochee. Confederate. Twin screw ironclad gunboat. Length, 130 or 150 feet, beam 25 or 30 feet, depth 10 feet, draft 7 feet 3 inches or 8 feet, speed 12 knots. Complement of 120, with four 32-pounder rifled guns and one 9-inch smoothbore gun. Built in 1861-62 at the Saffold Navy Yard, Saffold, Ga. The ship's first captain, Cdr. Catesby R. Jones, later commanded the CSS Virginia in its battle with the USS Monitor at Hampton Roads, Va. Plagued by poor engines that kept the vessel out of combat. Its boilers exploded and the vessel sank, killing nineteen men and wounding others, on May 27, 1863, near Blounts Town, Fla. The Confederates raised the vessel in August 1863, took it to Columbus, Ga., and repaired it with boilers from the wrecked CSS Raleigh. In mid-April 1865 the vessel was burned to the water's edge and scuttled in the Chattahoochee River to prevent its capture by Brig. Gen. James Harrison Wilson's Union raiders. The vessel's engines were hit with sledgehammers to wreck them before it sank. The wreck was at Broken Bow Bend, about 13.9 miles below Columbus. Two guns were raised in 1912 during very low water. The vessel was located by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the 1960s. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Confederate Gunboat Association tried to raise it in 1964. The keel snapped, and only the stern was salvaged. The salvaged 30-feet-long stern section was put in the Civil War Naval Museum at Port Columbus. Later a survey by East Carolina University located about 90 feet of the midship and bow, which is reported to be under 15 feet of water and mud. The wreck is located in the upper portion of the Walter F. George Reservoir. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places. (OR, 49, Pt. L365; ORN, 22:258-59; ser. 2, 1:250; 2:530, 752; CWC, 6-208, 354; Boozer, "Chattahoochee's Sunken Guns," True Treasure, 28, 30; Bass, Ships and Shipwrecks of the Americas, 221; Stephenson, "Physical Processes at the C.S.S. Chattahoochee Wreck Site," Proceedings of the Sixteenth Conference on Underwater Archaeology, 97-99; Civil War Naval Museum at Port Columbus Web site.)

Colonel Long. Confederate. Fishing schooner, 14 tons. Crew of eight. Cargo of one barrel of whiskey, a few bags of arrowroot, and a bag of sponges. Out of Miami. Was captured by the USS Jamestown and scuttled off the Georgia coast on September 4, 1861. (ORN, 6:166-67; Spence, List, 606-7; Shomette, Civil War Shipwrecks, 410.)

CSS Columbus. Confederate. Screw steamer, 106 tons. Length 82 feet, beam 19 feet, depth 7 feet 6 inches. Armed with two guns. Built in 1855 at Wilmington, Del. Tender to the CSS Nashville. Was burned and sank in the Ogeechee River in 1864, about 5 miles above the wreck of the CSS Nashville. In 1888 the vessel's machinery and part of the wreck was removed. In 1890 the wreck was removed to within 10 feet of the water's surface. (Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, 1891, 3:1605; Spence, List, 660.)

Comet. U.S. Wooden side-wheel steamer, 496 tons. Length 131 feet, beam 26 feet 3 inches, depth 5 feet 5 inches. Built in 1857 and probably rebuilt in 1865 at Savannah. Snagged and sank in November or December 2, 1865, at Hawkins-ville in the Ocmulgee River, with no lives lost. (MSV, 42, 252; Spence, List, 681-82; EAS, 113.)

Cossack. Union. Whaling bark, 254 or 256 tons. Out of New Bedford, Mass. Built in 1836 at Nobleboro, Maine. Carried 250 tons of stone. Was to be sunk as an obstruction. The Cossack was beached at Tybee Island to serve as a jetty and wharf for the Union invasion force in early December 1861. (ORN, 12:418; ser. 2, 1:67; DANFS, 5:430, 433; Spence, List, 711.)

Emerald. Union. Ship, 518 tons. Part of the 2nd Stone Fleet. Ran aground on Tybee Island in late December 1861 or early January 1862. (OR, 14:378-80; ORN, 13:508; LLC, 298.)

Emma (Ocean). British. Side-wheel steamer, 460 bulk tons. Length 150 feet, beam 30 feet, depth 9 feet 9 inches. Cargo of cotton and turpentine. Built in 1861 at Charleston, S.C. Ran ashore on the southeast side of Jones Island off Cunningham Point. Was set afire by its crew on August 30, 1862. (ORN, 12:510; DANFS, 5:435.)

Enoch Dean. Union. Transport, 135 or 194 tons. Length 135 feet 8 inches, beam 25 feet 10 inches, depth 7 feet. Built in 1852 at Keyport, N.J. While carrying African Americans for the Freedmen's Bureau, the vessel hit piles, became grounded, and was set afire on July 10, 1863, at Willstown Bluff in the Pon Pon River, more than 30 miles from the river's mouth. (OR, 28:1:194-99; MSV, 65.)

CSS Firefly. Confederate. Wooden side-wheel steamer. Complement of fifteen and one gun. Bought by South Carolina in 1861. Was transferred to the Confederate States Navy in May 1861. Used as a tender to the Savannah Squadron. Damaged by fire on November 5, 1862, but appears to have been repaired. Was burned and sank when Savannah fell on December 21, 1864, at Screven's Ferry at the wharf in Savannah. (OR, 44:280; ORN, 16:483-84; ser. 2, 1:252; Spence, List, 626, 663; CWC, 6-226.)

General Lee. U.S. Stern-wheel steamer, 250 burden tons. Length 139 feet, beam 27 feet, depth 4 feet 7 inches. Built in 1859 at Jacksonville, Fla. Was used as a Confederate transport until it was captured, with Confederate officers and a woman aboard, on August 10, 1862, by the Union tug Thomas Foulkes, which was manned by detachments of the 3rd R.I. Artillery Regiment and 48th N.Y. Infantry Regiment. Sank in the Savannah River below the Savannah City Works, near Hammond, in about 10 feet of water, near Hull & Co.'s wharf in 1865. The wreck was in place in 1890 but was moved by private parties to open a channel. (Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 1891, 3:184, 1603-4; Spence, List, 677.)

CSS Georgia (State of Georgia). Confederate. Ironclad floating battery, 500 tons. Length 260 or 250 feet, beam 60 feet. Complement of two hundred, with two 9-inch Dahlgren smoothbores and two 32-pounder smoothbore guns. Built in 1863 at Savannah. The vessel's engine was weak and could barely move it. Was moored as a floating battery northeast of Fort Jackson, near Elba Island, in the Savannah River. The CSS Georgia was surrounded by stone-filled cribs. Was burned at its moorings and blown up to avoid being captured on December 21, 1864. Was dynamited in 1866 to help clear channel obstructions, with some 80 tons of railroad iron armor removed. Was discovered in 28 feet of water in about 1968 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers next to the Savannah River ship channel. Part of the wreck has been hit by dredges. Some shells and other artifacts were recovered by divers. Part of the wreck is under 2 feet of mud. It has been studied since the 1980s by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Under investigation as part of the Savannah Harbor expansion by the Georgia Ports Authority. Listed in the National Register of Historic Places. (ORN, 15:702-3; 16:459, 482, 489-90; ser. 2, 1:254; Granger, History of the Savannah District, 11; Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers 1888, 1017; CWC, 6-238; Anuskiewicz and Garrison, "Underwater Archaeology by Braille—A Study of a Scuttled Confederate Ironclad, C.S.S. Georgia," Twelfth Annual Scientific Diving Symposium, 1-11; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District, and Georgia Ports Authority, "CSS Georgia" Web site; Toner, "Divers Study Long-Sunk Civil War Ship," Atlanta Journal-Constitution, July 31, 2003.)

CSS Ida. Confederate. Side-wheel steamer, 77 tons. Used as a dispatch boat, transport, and tow boat. On December 10, 1864, the CSS Ida and one Confederate officer, Col. D. L. Clinch of Lt. Gen. William J. Hardee's staff, and twelve men were captured by a party of Union soldiers of the 150th N.Y. Infantry Regiment. The CSS Ida was burned at Argyle Island as the Confederate vessels approached. (OR, 44:208, 215, 222, 235, 239, 247.)

Iddo Kimball. U.S. Bark. En route from New York City to the Savannah River. Was lost at the Oyster Beds near Fort Pulaski about September 27, 1865. (Spence, List, 678.)

CSS Isondiga. Confederate. Steam cottonclad gunboat. Draft 6 feet 7 inches, speed 5 knots. Complement of sixty, with one 9-inch shell gun and one 6.4-inch rifle, and three guns reported on November 5, 1864. Was set afire and blown up at noon on December 20, 1864, above a pontoon bridge near Savannah in the Black River to prevent its capture by Union forces. (ORN, 16:459, 484, 489; ser. 2, 1:256; CWC, 6-252.)

Israel R. Snow (Israel L. Snow). U.S. Schooner, 95 tons. Draft 8 feet 6 inches. Cargo of eight hundred bushels of lime and one hundred bushels of potatoes. Built in 1853 at Owlshead, Maine. En route from Rockland, Maine, to Savannah. Was beached on Tybee Island on December 18, 1865, with the cargo on fire and the ship leaking. (Spence, List, 682-83.)

Kate L. Bruce. Confederate. Armed schooner, 310 or 270 tons. Draft 10 feet. Was sunk to obstruct the Chattahoochee River below Columbus in December 1864. The Kate L. Bruce had been a British blockade-runner. (ORN, ser. 2, 1:257; DANFS, 2:541.)

Leesburg. U.S. Steamer. Partially loaded with a cargo of cotton. Hit a snag and sank in the Savannah River on June 22, 1865, with two lives lost. (Spence, List, 676.)

Lewis. Union. Whaling ship, 308 tons. Purchased at London, Conn. Loaded with stone. Was to be sunk to act as an obstruction. Was run aground at Tybee Island, bilged, and broke up in early December 1861. (ORN, 12:418; ser. 2, 1:126; DANFS, 5:430, 433.)

Marianna. British. Ship, 1,000 tons. En route from London to Savannah in ballast. Was driven ashore near the second outer buoy of Tybee Bar on November 14, 1865, during a storm. The brig Rush rescued the captain and crew. (Spence, List, 680.)

Meteor. Union. Ship, 324-25 tons. Draft 15 feet. Built in 1819 at Newburyport, Mass. Carried several hundred tons of stone. Purchased on November 4, 1861, at Mystic, Conn. In early 1862, while on the south edge of the Savannah River Main Channel, the vessel parted the anchor chain inside the bar, bilged, and drifted ashore, breaking up. (ORN, 12:418; ser. 2, 1:142; DANFS, 5:430, 433; Spence, List, 718-19.)

CSS Milledgeville. Confederate. Steam ironclad sloop, 1,000 tons. Length 175 feet, beam 35 feet 3 inches, depth 12 feet, draft 9 feet, armor plate 6 inches. Pierced for a battery of four guns, but none were mounted. Was launched in 1864 at Savannah. Was burned to the water's edge to avoid being captured on December 21, 1864, at Savannah. In 1890 the CSS Milledgeville was near the sunken CSS Robert Habersham. Parts of the CSS Milledgeville were removed in January and February 1896 by a contractor for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. (ORN, 16:502-3; ser. 2, 1:260; Chief of Engineers Report 1891, 3:1602-4; CWC, 6-271; WCWN, 208.)

CSS Nashville (Rattlesnake) (Thomas L. Wragg). Confederate. Wooden two-mast side-wheel steam privateer, former blockade-runner, 1,221 or 1,220 tons, 1,800 bulk tons. Length 215 feet 6 inches, beam 34 feet 6 inches or 34 feet 9 inches, draft 12 feet, depth 21 feet 9 inches. Complement of 40-130, with two 12-pounders or 6 guns. Built in 1854 at New York City. Ran aground on February 27, 1863, at a bend of the Great Ogeechee River about one mile above and across from Fort McAllister. Was grounded three-quarters of a mile from the USS Montauk. The next day the monitor USS Montauk came in and shelled the CSS Nashville from a distance of 1,200 yards, while the rest of the Union fleet bombarded Fort McAllister. CSS Nashville blew up between 9:40 and 9:50 a.m. on February 28, 1863. By 3:00 p.m. the vessel had burned to the water's edge. The wreck's stern was 90 feet from the bank in 28 feet of water with the bow in 13 feet of water, angled 45° from shore. The machinery and part of the wheels were above water. There was some salvage of the wreck between 1866 and 1868 and again in 1888. Divers with the Georgia Historical Society salvaged much of the vessel's machinery and other items between 1956 and 1959 for the Fort McAllister Museum. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers demolished part of the wreck in the 1950s and 1960s as a navigation hazard. The wreck was extensively worked during the 1970s and 1980s by Dave Topper, Frank Chance, and Paul Chance, who recovered thousands of items and attempted to claim salvage rights. The State of Georgia won a lawsuit over rights to the wreck. Some artifacts are on exhibit at the Fort McAllister Museum, Fort McAllister State Historic Park. (OR, 14:217; ORN, 13:704-10, 712; ser. 2, 1:261; Chief of Engineers Report 1891, Pt. 3:1605; MSV, 152; CWC, 6-275; Spence, List, 632-33; LLC, 313; Chance and Topper, CSS Nashville, entire book; Bass, Ships and Shipwrecks of the Americas, 220; Georgia Historic Preservation Division Web site; Fort McAllister Web site.)

CSS Ogeechee (CSS Macon). Confederate. Screw ram. Length 130 or 150 feet, beam 30 or 25 feet, draft 7 feet 3 inches or 8 feet, depth 10 feet, speed 12 knots. Complement of 120, with four 32-pounder smoothbores, one rifled 32-pounder, and one 9-inch smoothbore. Built in 1863 at Savannah. Surrendered to Union forces in May 1865. Was sunk in the Savannah River across from the City Exchange. (Chief of Engineers Report 1888, 1017; CWC, 6-265; WCWN, 218.)

Peter Demill. Union. Bark, 300 tons. Out of New York City. Part of the First Stone Fleet. Purchased in 1861 at New London, Conn. Sank at a jetty and wharf off Tybee Island in early December 1861. (ORN, ser. 2, 1:176; DANFS, 5:430, 433.)

Petit (Oliver M. Petit) (USS O. M. Petit) (PetitM. Smith). U.S. Side-wheel steam tug, 165 tons. Length 106 feet, beam 24 feet 4 inches, depth 7 feet, draft 6 feet, speed 8 knots. Armed with one 30-pounder and one rifled 20-pounder. Built in 1857 at Williamsburg, N.Y. Was sunk on April 24, 1865, across from the wreck of the General Lee. Was raised and returned to service. (Spence, List, 674-75; MSV, 163.)

Phoenix. Union. Whaling ship, 404 tons. Out of New London, Conn. Was to be used to obstruct the Savannah River Bar or Tybee Island Bar. Lost its rudder, began leaking, and was towed to a beach and sunk as a breakwater off Tybee Island in early December 1861. (ORN, 12:418; ser. 2, 1:177; DANFS, 5:430, 433; Spence, List, 719-20.)

Republic (USS Mobile) (Tennessee) (USS Tennessee). U.S. Wooden hull, iron framed side-wheel steamer, 1,149 or 1,275 bulk tons; 1,500 or 852 tons. Length 210 feet, beam 33 feet 11 inches, draft 12 feet, depth 19 feet. Cargo of $400,000 in gold and silver coins, also freight, including cloth, ceramic religious goods, bottled foodstuffs, chamber pots, dishes, inkwells, slates, shoes, and telescopes. Built in 1854 at Baltimore. En route from New York City for New Orleans as the Tennessee. Was captured on April 25, 1862, by Union forces when New Orleans fell. Was commissioned as the USS Tennessee on May 2, 1862, with a complement of 217 and two 30-pounders, one rifled 30-pounder, and one rifled 12-pounder. Was renamed USS Mobile on September 1, 1864, after the captured Confederate ironclad CSS Tennessee became the Union navy ship USS Tennessee. Was sold to private interests as the Republic on May 12, 1865. Foundered in a hurricane on October 25, 1865, about 100 miles southeast of Savannah, and thirty-four lives were lost. The vessel's three lifeboats and a makeshift raft were recovered with survivors along the East Coast. Was discovered in late July 2003 in about 1,700 feet of water by Odyssey Marine Expeditions, a salvage company led by Greg Stemm and John Morris, in their vessel Odyssey. A bottle and piece of wood taken from the wreck were used in a Tampa, Fla., federal court to "arrest" the shipwreck in international waters in order to establish claims for the salvage process. The Odyssey Explorer used a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and salvaged more than fifty thousand rare coins from the wreck by late 2004, including samples of all double eagles ($20 gold pieces) minted between 1850 and 1865 except for an 1856-O. About one-fourth of the specie believed to have been part of the cargo has been recovered. Much of the cargo of consumer items has also been recovered. (ORN, ser. 2, 1:221; MSV, 231, 307; Vesilind, Lost Gold of the Republic, 26-27, 152-57, 185-214, 260-67; Vesilind "Lost Gold Bounty from a Civil War Ship," National Geographic Magazine, 108-27.)

CSS Resolute (Ajax). Confederate. Side-wheel steamer, 322 tons. Complement of seven officers and twenty-eight men. Used as a tender and residence for the crew of the CSS Savannah. Collided with the CSS Macon on December 12, 1864, about 800 yards from a bluff near a mill at Tweedside on the Savannah River. Ran aground while under fire and hit in the wheel. Was captured and destroyed by Union troops. (ORN, 16:486, 489-90; ser. 2, 1:264; Spence, List, 659; WCWN, 241; MSV, 184; CWC,

CSS Robert Habersham (Haversham). Confederate. Side-wheel steamer, 173 or 200 tons. Length 135 feet, beam 25 feet. Complement of twenty-five. Built in 1860 at Savannah. Was used to drag the Savannah River. The boiler exploded in the Savannah River at Screven's Ferry in August

1863 with at least eight to ten wounded and possibly all hands killed. The hulk was moved to the Wreck Channel near the fourth spur of Fig Island with the machinery removed. Was permanently removed in January to February 1896 by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contractor Charles Johnson of Lewes, Del. (Chief of Engineers Report 1891, 3:1602-4; MSV, 186; Spence, List, 645.)

Santa Clara. Union. Brig, 190 tons. Built in 1856 at East-port, Maine. Was captured by the Confederate privateer Jefferson Davis. Was sunk with two other prizes in the Savannah River in November 1861 to block the waterway, probably near Fort Pulaski. (ORN, 1:818; Chief of Engineers Report 1888, 1017; Spence, List, 626.)

Savannah. U.S. Ship. Former Confederate captured during the Civil War and became a Union tinclad. Returned to commerce. Was run into by the steamer Mayflower and sank on November 5, 1865, at Hickory Bend in the Savannah River, 28 or 35 miles above Savannah. Was raised and taken to Savannah. (Spence, List, 626-27.)

CSS Savannah. Confederate. Ironclad steam sloop. Length 150 feet, beam 34 feet, depth 14 feet, draft 12 feet 6 inches, speed 6-7 knots, armor 4 inches iron, 22 inches wood planking. Complement of 27 officers and 154 men, with two 7-inch rifled Brookes and two 6.4-inch rifled Brookes guns. Was launched in 1863 at Savannah. Was burned to prevent its capture on December 21, 1864, in the Savannah River. (OR, 44:7, 12, 209, 280, 792, 965; ORN, 16:289, 459, 484, 489; ser. 2, 1:266; DANFS, 2:565.)

Sebusticook. Union. Ship, 560 or 549 tons. Draft 18 feet. Sunk in 1862 to obstruct the Savannah River. (DANFS, 5:430, 433.)

Silvanus (Sylvanus). British. Schooner, 9 tons. Crew of nine. Cargo of salt, liquor, and cordage. Out of Nassau, Bahamas. Was chased ashore at Doboy Sound by USS Huron after being hit by an 11-inch shell at the waterline on January 2, 1864. The tide came over the vessel, and the crew was captured. (ORN, 15:219-21; SCH, 424-25.)

Sophia. Union. Schooner. Carried assorted cargo. Sailed from Charleston, S.C. British blockade-runner out of

New Providence, Bahamas. Was captured by the USS Dan Smith. Got caught in a storm with the Union prize crew southeast of Cape Henry, Va., with its sails shattered, hull leaking, and the crew short of food, at latitude 36° 35' north, about 200 miles from shore, on May 5, 1863. By May 7, 1863, it had traveled 72 miles farther north. The crew was finally rescued a day later at latitude 38° 30' north, longitude 69° west, by the Italian bark Aurora from Messina, en route to New York City. The Sophia was left to drift and later was found high and dry and abandoned northeast of Egg Island in Altamaha Sound. (ORN, 15:349-50, 354; WCWN, 135.)

South America. Union. Bark, 606 tons. Carried 650 tons of stone. Purchased at New Bedford, Mass. Was sunk in early December 1861 off Tybee Island to serve as a j etty and wharf for Union troops. (ORN, 12:418; ser. 2, 2:211; DANFS,

Standard. Canadian. Brig, 110 tons. Cargo of groceries, medicine, boots, lead, and gun caps. Carried ten people. Out of Windsor, Nova Scotia. Was supposed to be en route to Matamoras, Mexico. In April 1862 it got trapped up the North Newport River off St. Catherine's Island at Mr. Bishop's Landing on Melon Bluff. Was later scuttled at Melon Bluff. (Dickson, "Voyage of Fear and Profit, Part I," Civil War Times Illustrated, 14-15; Dickson, "Voyage of Fear and Profit, Part II," Civil War Times Illustrated, 32-35.)

Swan. Confederate. Iron screw steamer, 316 tons. Length 135 feet, beam 27 feet, depth 5 feet. Built in 1856 at Wilmington, Del. Was burned and sank at Screven's Ferry at Savannah on December 21, 1864. Was raised in July 1865 and refitted as a passenger and freight steamer. (Spence, List, 665.)

Sylph. U.S. Steamer from Hilton Head, N.C. Ran ashore on May 7, 1865, on the Savannah River above and north of Fort Pulaski. Was probably refloated. (Spence, List, 675.)

CSS Talomico. Confederate. Side-wheel steamer. Complement of twenty and a battery of two guns. Accidentally sank at Savannah in 1863. (ORN, ser. 2, 1:268; CWC, 6-311.)

CSS Water Witch (USS Water Witch). Union. Side-wheel gunboat, 378 tons. Length 150 feet, beam 23 feet, draft 8

feet 2 inches draft, depth 11 feet 6 inches, speed 7 knots. Complement of 80-55, with one rifled 32-pounder and two 12-pounder howitzers (another source—1864 battery: one rifled 30-pounder, one rifled 12-pounder, and two 12-pounder smoothbores). Built in 1852 at the Washington Navy Yard. Was captured on June 3, 1864, by Lt. Thomas P. Pelot and a force of Confederates from the CSS Sampson in Ossabow Sound, about a half-mile north of the mouth of Bradley's River. Lieutenant Pelot was killed in the attack. The Confederates removed the pivot gun, and the vessel remained in the Vernon River at White Bluff until the CSS Water Witch was burned on December 19, 1864, to prevent its capture by Union forces. A contract was let between the U.S. government and a contractor in 1866 to raise the vessel. It was probably removed. (ORN, 16, 484; 15:468-72; ser. 2, 1:237; Spence, List, 660-61; WCWN, 24; Chance and Topper, CSS Nashville, 100; CWC, 6-323.)

William H. Starke. Confederate. Steamer. Cargo of 2,000 bushels of corn and other articles. Sank in the Savannah River on February 3, 1863, in 30 feet of water, 20 miles below Augusta, Ga. (MSV, 231, 307; Spence, List, 603-4.)

William Jenkins. U.S. Side-wheel steamer, 1,012 or 1,011 tons. Length 209 feet, beam 31 feet 10 inches, depth 15 feet 11 inches, draft 13 feet. Built in 1855 at Baltimore. Caught fire on January 19, 1861, in Savannah at Carlton's Wharf near the gas house. The William Jenkins was cut loose from its moorings and moved downstream to the other side of Lamar's Cotton Press. (MSV, 231, 307; Spence, List, 630.)

> vessels without names dry dock. Confederate. Floating dry dock. Sank in the middle of Saint Augustus Creek, Thunderbolt River, about a mile from its confluence with the Savannah River. Was removed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 1880-81 to a depth of 10 feet below low water. (Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, 1881, 1:174-75.)

schooner. Nationality unknown. Cargo of coffee, cigars, blankets, shoes, and other goods. Was run ashore on December 15, 1861, by the USS Bienville off St. Andrews and set afire. (ORN, 12:402.)

schooner. Nationality unknown. Was destroyed on December 15, 1861, at St. Simons Bay by the USS Alabama. (ORN, 12:402, SCH, 334-35.)

schooner. Confederate. Was set afire below the Coffee Bluff Confederate battery in the Little Ogeechee River on November 7, 1862, as the USS Wissahickon and USS Dawn approached. (ORN, 13:439-40.)

vessel. Confederate. Was sunk during the Civil War in the Savannah River just upstream of the wreck of the CSS Ogeechee, across from the Savannah City Exchange. (Chief of Engineers Report 1888, 1017.)

vessel. Confederate. Sank during the Civil War in the Savannah River North Channel, opposite the upper end of Elba Island. Was probably removed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the 1870s. (Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30,1872, 2:653.)

vessels. Confederate. About sixty vessels including those in the previous entry were sunk in the Savannah River below the head of Elba Island by Confederate forces in order to block the channel. The area became known as the "obstructions." Twenty of these wrecks were removed in 1866 by Henry S. Welles, a contractor for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Three vessels and parts of one vessel were removed in 1873 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers from the upper end of Elba Island in the Savannah River. (Chief of Engineers Report 1873, 69; and Chief of Engineers Report 1888, 1017.)

vessels. Confederate. Four hulks were sunk by Confederates with ballast in a narrow channel just below Fort Pulaski in the Savannah River in November 1861 to keep Union vessels from approaching and shelling Fort Pulaski. (New York Times, December 10, 1861; DANFS, 5:433.)

vessels. Confederate. Two vessels captured by Confederates were sunk with the captured prize Santa Clara in the Savannah River in November 1861 to block the waterway, probably near Fort Pulaski. (ORN, 1:818; Chief of Engineers Report 1888, 1017; Spence, List, 626.)

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